1.1 types of crime revision

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  • Types of crime
    • White collar crime
      • White collar crimes are usually committed in commercial situations for financial gain, like internet fraud, tax evasion, etc.
        • The level of public awareness is quite low as it usually takes place through complex "underground" schemes which are very difficult to trace. Its also not publicised as much.
      • Victim: usually those who have funds to invest in a finance scheme, eg retired workers
      • Offender: people of higher respectability and social status. They are trusted people who usually work in commercial employment.
        • Case study: Bernie Madoff
    • Moral Crimes
      • Moral crimes are crimes that go against the normal moral standard. These are usually prostitution, vagrancy, underage drinking, assisted suicide, illegal gambling, and illegal drug use.
      • Victim: often seen as victimless, or that the offender and the victim is the same person.
      • Offender: often is the same person or a person acting out of desperation
      • Awareness is often low as many of the offences are hidden from offenders family. Also it is often ignored as people feel sympathy for the victims and dont feel they should report it
    • State crimes
      • State crimes are committed by the government or people in charge of a country.  Examples are genocide, war crimes, torture, and imprisonment without trial.
        • Victim: citizens of the country, possibly those of a different religion or political view that the government.
        • Offender: usually high ranking government officials under orders of the country's regime. Eg of genocide: Nazi Germany during holocaust.
        • Level of public awareness is quite high as the crimes are so extreme.
    • Tech crimes
      • This is when crime is committed through the internet or other technology. For example, internet enabled fraud and cyber bullying.
      • Victim: anyone who uses the internet
      • Offender: could be any one with access to and basic knowledge of the internet.
    • Individual crimes
      • Hate crime- crime against a person/group of people based on their race, religion, sexual orientation, disablility, etc
        • Victim: anyone who falls under those special characteristics, or people who are associated with people from those categories.
        • Offender: anyone who commits a crime against those categories of people. For example, burning down a mosque because you hate Muslims.
        • Due to increased media focus, the level of public awareness is quite high. It is also against the law to discriminate against a person/group of people for who they are.
      • Honour crime- punishment on people for bringing shame to their family due to something they did. Examples of punishments are acid attacks, murder, abductions, beatings, and mutilation.
        • Case study: Shafilea Ahmed
        • Victim: usually a young girl, commonly from an Asain family.
        • Offender: usually a male in the family, often a brother, father or uncle.
        • This usually has low public awareness due to the culture differences.
      • Domestic abuse- targeted abuse against a partner/family member with the home. It can involve physical, emotional, or mental violence/abuse/manipulation.
        • Victim: typically women such as girlfriends or wives. Can also be men, but most cases are with female victims.
        • Level of awareness can be low, as many victims and offenders keep the situation quiet, and some people prefer to turn a blind eye. Police are trained to take it seriously, however some times they may not put enough effort into the case due to things like lack of evidence.
        • Offender: typically male like a boyfriend or husband. Can be female abuser but some cases are male abusers. Offenders often hide the crime and manipulate the victims to lie about it and keep it quiet.


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