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  • 1963:Birmingham, Alabama protests
    • What was Birmingham like?
      • KKK
        • Castrated an African American
        • Pressured the banning of books
        • Wanted Back music banned on the radio
      • 'Americas worst city for racism'- King
      • Campaigns led to violence
        • Many Black Americans did not participate: knew about long term consequenceswhen MLK was gone
      • Still not segregated 6 years after the Montgomery decision
    • Aims
      • End segregation
      • Turn media attention to Birmingham: expose policies
    • The Protest
      • Martin Luther King Civil Rights march peaceful protest
      • Protesters faced high pressure hoses and police dogs from Bull Connor
      • Police arrested over 1000 protesters (including King for defying an injunction)
    • Results
      • Images shown around the world (including children)
        • Brought international shame on Birmingham- those meant to maintain law and order were the attackers
        • Businessmen worried about outside investments needed at the time.
        • Extra money poured in from the SCLC
      • J F Kennedy
        • Intervened and got MLK out of prison,
        • Concerned with what he saw on TV
          • Push him to prepare the 1964 Civil Rights Act- civil rights legislation shortly followed
          • Stores desegregated
          • Job opportunities for Black Americans improved
          • Biracial committee set up to improve the community
      • Connor removed from power- decision made by the Supreme Court


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