(2) Ethnicity in language mindmap

This mindmap on ethncity only contains the main content, apart from MLE for AQA.

For a mindmap on MLE, look at (3) ethnicity in language mindmap

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  • Ethnicity in language
    • Linguistic impacts of language variation
      • With every speech act all individuals perform, to a greater or lesser extent, is an act of identity revealed  through their personal use of language, their sense of social and ethnic solidarity or difference.
    • A language that expresses identity
      • Case Studies
        • Case study- The use of Pidgin English In Nigeria
          • A prestige associated with standard English creates a debate in Nigeria on whether the Standard varients of a language should only be used.
          • -75 million Nigerian pidgin speakers, -Pidgin is considered sub-standard among Nigerian elite, -Some Nigerian say pidgin is indigenous and can foster national identity, -adapting pidgin as a national language would separate and isolate it from the national scene, -The Nigerian pidgin reinforces the colonial powers
        • Case Study- Jamaican Patrois
          • Features of Jamaican patrois
            • The lack of the verb 'to be'       Pronouns may not be marked or clear, eg 'Mi run'                  'TH' stopping, eg 'ting'            'H' dropping        Consonant cluster reduction whereby you simplify the consonant and deleting the final sound, eg 'best' becomes 'bes'  Unreduced vowels in weak syllables eg 'lot of work'
      • Hewitt (1989) and Sebba (2003) identified a new development in the 1980's- 'black cockney'. A style used by young black speakers in London.
        • The usage of language that is influenced by Jamaican creole can be seen as the creation of a resistance identity through language. Shunned and mocked by the establishment, the usage of creole could be seen almost as a political stance- an international divergence
      • John Pitts (2012)- Young black people who felt ignored by society might see their use of creole as a statement of resistence
    • Migration
      • With the large scale arrival of Caribbean people in the UK from the late 1940's onwards (the Windrush), more people speak Jamaican English in urban areas
        • The creole spoken by many Jamaicans is over 500 years old and is inextricably linked with the slave trade. It is made up of both English and the various West African languages that were spoken by slaves
      • How creole was viewed after migration
        • Ben Rampton stated that 'Creole was widely seen as cool, though and good to use,' It was associated with assertiveness and verbal reinforcement, competence in heterosexual relationships and opposition o authority
        • Mary Bucholtz (2001) for example, looks at the language of 'white nerds' who deliberately distanced themselves from white peers who are more likely to adopt 'cooler' black speech styles. Findings- The linguistic practices that they did engage in, gloried their 'uncool' super-standard stance that was both culturally and racially marked; creating alternative linguist identity
      • How aspects of Jamaican English became embedded in our culture
        • In the 1960's and 1970's, the contact between Jamaican- English young people and their white working class neighbours at work adnd at school, and the increasing number of mixed race relationships meant that people of different ethnic backgrounds were  exposed to eachother's varients of English.
          • A degree of 'crossing' was evident, whereby a white speaker may use more traditional features with some peer groups and shift into lexis influenced by Jamaican English when with a black peer group (accommodation theory)
      • Paul Kerswell- Migration and the transformation of the cockney dialect: 100 different languages in one borough in London, 300 different languages in London. Kerswell challenged the link between Jamaican creole and criminality and that urban accents in prisons creates a conclusion that Afro Caribbean languages and dialects connote criminal activity. Says dialectology tells us linguistic innovation starts in cities due to contact situations in larger cities, between cultures, is more likely.


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