3.1a Globalisation

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  • 3.1a
    • What is Globalisation?
      • Globalisation is the process of increasing interconnectivity between countries
        • Globalisation has increased connectedness of the world's economic, social, cultural and political systems
          • Economic globalisation:the growth of TNCs, which have a global branch image and presence; the spreading of investment around the world; rapid growth in world trade.
          • Cultural: unifying and diversifying; people using increasingly similar: food, clothes, music, values - many of which are 'western' in origin (from North American and Europe)
          • Political: spreading ideologies, global organisations(e.g. the UN), the dominance of western democracies in political and economic decision making; spreads the view that democratic, consumerist societies are the most 'successful'
          • Environmental:agreements (Paris), pollution affecting other countries, species being spread to other countries; global warming is a global threat requires a global solution
          • Demographic: increasing migration and tourismmakes populations more fluid and mixed
    • Widening and DeepeningGlobal Connections
      • Widening: links to new places, often farther away
      • Deepening: numbering type of connections increase, and volume of flows grows.
    • Interdependence
      • Globalisation increases interdependence
      • Success of one place depends on the success of other places
      • Economic problems in one country can quickly spread to its trading partner and quickly affect people in distant places
        • April 2011, staff at Honda factory in Swindon had to work only two days a week due to a soppy shortage following the Japanese tsunami
        • The German DAX (Stock Market) lost 1.2% within minutes after the tsunami
    • Flows
      • Increase in flows of: Goods and services, capital, people, information
        • Goods and services: Products and commodities, that can be bought, and are often made or grown in other countries
        • Capital: flows of money between people, banks, businesses and Govs
        • People: including migrants and tourists
        • Information: e.g. data transferred between businesses and people, often using the internet
    • Examples
      • In the 1960s people holidayed in the UK or Spain - now holidaying in Dubai or Florida is not too exotic
      • 1960s: Clothes made in the  UK- now China, Vietnam, Bangladesh
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