A-Level Geography - Human - Distant Place Study: Detroit

  • Created by: Noah_S
  • Created on: 19-04-22 12:16
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  • Distant Place - Detroit
    • Physical
      • Late 19th century; Detroit referred to as the 'Paris of the West' for its architecture, grand avenues, and the recently electrified Washington Boulevard
      • 1940s; The Davison, the world's first urban depressed highway, was built, symbolising the automotive centric city
      • 1929; Skyline of Detroit consisted of modernist skyscrapers in the CBD along with factories
      • 1950s; Construction of highway and freeway systems, along with demand for new housing, stimulated suburbanisation
        • 1956; Detroit's last heavily used streetcar line was replaced with buses, continuing to symbolise the motor city
      • 2000s; 10,000 homes being demolished every 4 years, with 1 family leaving every 20 minutes
        • 2010; Out of the 139 sqr miles of Detroit, 40 sqr miles is vacant (1/3 of the city)
      • 2000s; Abandoned buildings, litter and stray animals show an unpleasant landscape
      • 2012; 1 sqr mile being developed from abandoned buildings into urban woodland
        • 2017; 1500 urban gardens created in Detroit
    • Economical
      • 1903; Henry Ford founded Ford, which established Detroit as the automotive capital
        • 1907; Detroit river carried 67 million tons of shipping commerce, compared to 19 million for London
        • 1932; Rouge River industrial complex was the largest factory in the world, 100,000 workers and 120 miles of conveyor belts
      • 1950s; 60% of the industry was the automotive industry, creating plenty of jobs and opportunities
        • Attracted black workers from the south, showing in a 103% increase of black workers in post-war Detroit
      • 1973; Gasoline crisis made buyers choose more efficient foreign market cars, seeing the sales of Detroit-made cars reduce
        • Led to plants being close and thousands losing their jobs in the city
        • 2000s; US EV industry undercut by foreign markets like China, $41,000 US vs $20,000 Chinese + 3x the range
      • 2010; Over 10 years, Michigan lost 50% of manufacturing jobs, with 50,000 factories being closed in the US
        • American Axle outsourced 200,000 jobs to Mexico, General Motors moved R&D to Shanghai
      • 2000s; Worker's wages being cut back by $3-4 per hour to compete or they are made redundant
        • 2009; General Motors & Chrysler bankrupt, led to 50% cut on union's wages
      • 2017; Foodlab Detroit helped create healthy food businesses with urban farming
        • Created 250 jobs with $7.5 Million revenue
    • Social
      • 1930s; Population soared from under 80,000 in 1870 to 1.5 million
        • Made Detroit the US's 4th largest city
      • 1920s; Developed racial conflicts and discrimination due to rapid demographic changes with black migration from the South & European migration
        • 1/3 of the 20,000 - 30,000 KKK members based in Michigan was  thought to be in Detroit
      • 1943; Detroit Race riot took place after Packard promoted 3 blacks to work next to whites on its assembly lines, leading to 25,000 whites to walk out
        • Riots led to 25 black deaths, 450 wounded and property damage
      • 1950s; Unequal opportunities led to unequal housing for blacks, with them being limited to lower cost & lower quality housing due to policies
      • July 1967; Assassination of MLK led to Twelfth Street Riot, where the Michigan National Guard was mobilised into Detroit
        • Led to 43 deaths, 467 injured, 7,200 arrests and >2000 buildings destroyed which remained ruins for decades, marking the most costly US riot
      • 2010; US Census showed Detroit's population was 713,000 (highest was 1.8 million in 1950s)
        • Shows 59% increase in young residents moving downtown due to cheap housing
      • 2010s; 70% of people are obese or overweight, and live closer to a fast food store than a supermarket
        • Led to urban gardens being created to provide fresh food for local communities, Brightmore has a 20 block farm area w/ community buildings


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