A-Level Geography - Human - Sustainable Urban Development

  • Created by: Noah_S
  • Created on: 16-02-22 16:12
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  • Sustainable Urban Development
    • Case Study - Curitiba, Brazil
      • Transport
        • Rua da Flores (Street of Flowers) was one of the first blocks pedestrianised in the 1970s, reducing car use
          • Expanded to 15 pedestrianised blocks in the 2000s
        • Arterial roads (roads leading in/out of the city) changed to have 2 lanes in, 2 lanes out & 2 central lanes for buses
          • Introduced triple articulated buses to carry more people, for 200x cheaper than a subway
          • Bus system then implemented over 2 years & today it serves 1.3 million passengers (pop of 2 mill)
        • Implemented boarding tubes w/ prepaid tickets, made it more convenient than car
      • Parkland
        • Ring of parks introduced around the city, turning marginal land into parks which raised value of properties near them
          • Curitiba has 4x the greenspace per person than recommended by the UN
        • Parks help mitigate flooding, which is cheaper than channelising the river
          • Would have costed a school per 100 metres if used concrete
        • Urban shepherds use sheep to mow grass, saving money + providing jobs
      • Favelas
        • Jamie Lerner came up with 'equation of co-responsibility', which pays poor people in healthy food for clearing their favelas
        • People moved from favelas are placed into new houses designed by them
          • Given low interest loans to own the land as well
    • Case Study - Freiburg, Germany
      • Energy
        • Receives the most sunlight out of any European city, so encourages the usage of solar panels
          • Freiburg City Hall, built in 2017, generates more electricity than it uses from solar panels
        • 75% of energy consumption in a normal building comes from heating/cooling, so insulation helps reduce this
          • Heliotrope is a building that rotates to face towards (letting warmth in during the winter) or away (cooling during the summer) the sun
      • Transport
        • 80% of people walk/bike in the city, compared to 20% by car
          • Encouraged by the 30kph speed limit (usual is 50kph)
        • ***, the largest transport company in the city, has 74 trams to be used in Freiburn
          • Has 80 million passenger journeys a year, and 220,000 a day (same as population)
      • Vauban
        • Suburb in Freiburg with population of 6000
        • Car free suburb, so residents use bicycles for transport
          • Has 17 cars per 100 people, 57 is the national average
        • Has the sun ship, the first office to run entirely off solar in the world
          • Vauban generates more energy than it consumes
    • General Theory
      • Ecological Footprint
        • It is the amount of land that is needed to produce everything a community uses and absorb its waste
          • London's ecological footprint is 120x the area of the conurbation itself
          • Tokyo's ecological footprint is 3x the area of Japan
        • Consumption & Waste production is higher in richer cities
        • Compact cities are easier to travel on foot/bike, so produce less pollution
        • Efficient public transport decreases car use, reducing pollution
      • Sustainable Features
        • Natural
          • Cities rely on renewable energy, produce little waste & reuse/recycle
          • People walk, cycle and use public transport, producing less pollution
        • Physical
          • Cities provide enough resources to support & let the population be productive
          • Includes plentiful high quality housing & secure supplies
        • Social
          • Cities offer good living conditions or all, with access to basic services
          • Socially sustainable cities are peaceful, tolerant, respect human rights & politically stable
        • Economic
          • Maintaining economic growth without causing long-term negative effects
          • Cities are wealthy, with low levels of inequality and little debt


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