A-Level Geography - Human - Urban Waste

  • Created by: Noah_S
  • Created on: 14-02-22 16:40
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  • Urban Waste
    • Factors
      • Lifestyles
        • Amount & type of waste depends on where people live
          • Rural areas produce more organic waste & urban areas produce more manufactured waste
        • Facilities available to people affect the waste streams they used
          • People are more likely to recycle if facilities are available to them
        • Diet affects waste components and streams
          • Producing processed food creates waste & products come in packaging
          • Fruit & Veg produce more compostable waste and less packaging
      • Attitudes
        • HICs have a throw-away culture, producing more waste
          • Much of this waste is non-recyclable / have long waste streams
        • Concerns about health may make people dispose food near or past its sell-by date
        • People more concerned for the environment will try to recycle/reuse more
      • Economic Characteristics
        • On average, HICs produce 2.1kg a day of waste per person, compared to 0.6kg a day from LICs
        • Components of waste in HICs are 31% paper, 28% organic material & 11% plastic
        • Components of waste in LICs are 64% organic compounds, 8% plastic & 5% paper
        • No link between waste streams & wealth
          • Austria recycles 63% of its waste compared to 21% in Japan
    • Case Study - Singapore
      • Problems
        • Waste produced increase from 1260 tonnes a day (1970) to 8400 tonnes (2015)
        • 1960s-1970s, most waste went to landfill, however land is scarce
      • Management
        • Government changed disposal to incinerators, building the first plant in 1979
          • 4 plants today, providing 3% of Singapore's energy needs
        • Now only has one landfill site, Semakau, which has a lining to prevent leaching
          • Expected to be full in 2040
        • Recycling facilities were set up in 2001 to help
        • In 2015, 2% of waste went to landfill, which is waste that cannot be incinerated or recycled
          • 38% of waste was incinerated & 60% was recycled
    • Disposal
      • Recycling
        • Waste is reprocessed into new products, generally using less energy than making products from scratch
      • Incineration
        • Waste is burnt, reducing usage of landfills but emits GHGs
        • Allington Incinerator in Maidstone has accepted 6 million tons of waste, generating 554,000 MWh, being able to power 29,000 homes
      • Landfill
        • Waste is placed in landfill sites, which many are lined to prevent leaching
          • If not regulated, chemicals can contain groundwater & cause air pollution from methane
        • Maldives ship 300 tons a day to Thilafushi island to be put in landfill, but porous land allows toxins to sweep into the sea
      • Trading
        • Waste can be bought/sold by countries, mainly used by HICs to export waste to LICs
        • E-Waste is imported into India, which is recycled but leads to workers inhaling heavy metals
      • Unregulated
        • Waste isn't disposed correctly, causing damage to ecosystems
        • Union Carbide dumped factory waste incorrectly in Bhopal, leading to birth deformities in the local Shanty Town




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