A.C. 2.2 + 3.2 - Describing and Evaluating Individualistic Theory (UNIT 2) (1)

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  • A.C. 2.2 Describe Individualistic Theories.
    • A.C. 3.2 Evaluate Individualistic Theories.
      • Advantages
        • Age restriction have been forced to stop imitation of behaviour between children and role models.
        • Cause and effect relationship is being shown.
        • Equal amount of boys and girls where being studied, making it more valid and useful.
        • No demand characteristic, children didn't know they were being observed through a 2 way mirror, this increases reliability.
      • Disadvantages
        • The sample consisted of only children from Stanford University primary school, which cant be generalised to any other country/culture making it a bias sample.
        • Due to the doll being placed in the room, children might have though they should repeat the behaviour shown.
        • Criticised on ethical ground, as parents consent was not given
        • Lacks ecological validity
    • Albert Bandura (SLT)
      • Child observes behaviour and then based on the perceived outcome of those behaviours (Positive or Negative), will copy or reject these behaviours.
      • 1. Attention: we watch the role model
      • 2. Retention: we remember the behaviour
      • 3. Reproduce: we copy the behaviour
      • 4. Motivation: we are rewarded in some way for the behaviour
      • Bobo Doll: bandura placed two groups of children with a doll into a room. 1st group had a aggressive role model, 2nd group had a non aggressive role model
      • 1st group of children copied the aggressive behaviour of the role model and then reproduced it.
      • 2nd group of children did not copy any behaviour as aggression was not shown by the role model
      • Bandura later conducted another experiment through a tv, showing children the two tapes and he got the same results.
      • CopyCat killers emerge due to role models such as jack the reaper and Yorkshire reaper.
    • Observational learning: criminal behaviour is learnt through observation either by family, peers or cultural symbols.
    • Vicarious Reinforcement, see someone getting rewarded for their actions, and so people copy.
    • Sutherland, Differential Association: learning experiences will vary in frequency and importance to each individual.
    • the process of learning criminal behaviour is no different to any other behaviour.


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