A.C. 2.2 + 3.2 - Describing and Evaluating Individualistic Theory (UNIT 2) (2)

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  • A.C. 2.2 Describe Individualistic Theories.
    • A.C. 3.2 Evaluate Individualistic Theories.
      • Advantages
        • there are everyday examples of the defence mechanisms in real life, such as crime victims often experiencing repression, and frequent denial.
        • Freud provided some new treatments to patients with mental health problems, which were otherwise unavailable.
        • Freud generated his theory from in-depth case studies. which provided him with very rich and in-depth information, including his own studies to support his theory.
        • His theory was built from valid data, and it focused on the dreams and problems of each individual he studied.
      • Disadvantages
        • Freud's approach does not use any scientific methods as the data is qualitative and specific to the individual - it is therefore not generalisable.
        • The concepts found by Freud's studies are not measurable - such as the unconscious mind - and therefore cannot be tested, the unconscious is unreachable by normal means.
        • The case studies that he used required his own personal interpretation and so the findings may be subjective and thus not generalisable to the theory.
        • unscientific as there is no proof that the unconscious mind even exists, and that it controls our behaviours.
    • Sigmund Freud
      • to understand behaviour, we have to examine early childhood experiences. he argued that much of our mind is unconscious. and that it control our behaviour.
      • Psyche:  the totality of the human mind, conscious and unconscious.
        • ID - this is the pleasure principle, it is the bad conscious, which tells us to do something selfish to satisfy us.
        • Ego: this is our reality, which our conscious is balanced between good and evil. we will be partially satisfied with what we do.
        • Superego: this is the morality principle, it is our good conscious, which tells us to do the good things, and we question our selfish desire.
      • Strong ID: Our 'ID' is overpowered and our 'Superego' has no chance to influence our decision making.
      • Weak Ego: where the demand of our 'ID' overpowers our 'Superego' demands, resulting in a weak superego.
      • Deviant Superego: our 'Superego' not functioning normally, resulting in not knowing what's right and wrong, can be due to identification of criminality.


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