Accent and Dialect Theory + Theorists

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  • Created by: DanBish
  • Created on: 12-05-22 18:44
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  • Accent and Dialect
    • Theorists
      • Gary Ives
        • Code switching - Where speakers alternate between their 1st and 2nd language, often in different social scenarios
      • Peter Trudgill
        • Found that men under-report, women over-report. Women of each class pronounce 'ing' more than men of the same class.
      • Howard Giles
        • 3 lectures in 3 accents. Scores given based off status, personality and persuasive-ness. Received Pronunciation was first
    • Key Terms
      • Standard English - Distinctive features of vocab, grammar and spelling that are 'acceptable' and understood
      • Received Pronunciation -  An accent associated with educated and upper class people.
    • What are they?
      • Accent - The pronunciation of words.
      • Dialect - The vocabulary, grammar and spelling that we use.
    • Theories
      • Standard English
        • William Caxton noted no standard of English that everyone recognised and understood.
        • Standard English originally came from the East Midlands and originated as a regional dialect.
        • Prescriptivist - SE most prestigious form of language, taught to everyone. Those who don't use it are corrupting the English Language, and are dis-advantaged
        • Descriptivist - SE is a variety, but not most prestigious. No language is more or less prestigious, and it is wrong to correct someone using non-standard
      • Received Pronunciation
        • Different to other accents as typically, accents indicate the region the speaker comes from.
        • Received pronunciation is also known as 'Queen's English' and 'BBC English', as received pronunciation and Standard English are often linked
        • In recent years, many BBC news readers have regional accents but a Standard English dialect.
        • Longer vowel sounds, pronouncing 'h' and 't'.
      • Estuary English
        • Replaced received pronunciation
        • Neither 'cockney' or RP - meets in the middle
        • Links to influence of meritocracy - intelligence + effort = merit
      • Regional accent
        • Each region has their own, individual dialect with its own lexis, grammar and phonology
        • Features like 'them' as a demonstrative adjective; double negatives; absence of plurals; absence of 'ly' suffix
        • Negative connotations - low intelligence; low social class
        • Positive connotations - more 'down to earth' or likeable; more persuasive

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