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  • Religious Organisations
    • Churches
      • Troeltsch 5 Features
        • 1. Churches tend to have very large memberships and inclusive memberships
        • 2. Churches tend to claim a monopoly on the truth
        • 3. Churches have large, bureaucratic, hierarchical structures
        • 4. Churches have professional, paid clergy
        • 5. Churches tend to be closely tied to the sate
      • Criticisms of the 'concept' of the church
        • Bruce Religious organisations no longer fit the same definition they did in pre modern socieites
    • Denominations
      • Niebuhr 6 Characteristic denomination
        • 1) Like churches, denominations draw members from all sections of society: they are inclusive
        • 2. Like churches, denominations have formal organisations and are hierarchically organised with a bureaucratic structure
        • 3. There tend to be several denoms in a society, so they do not have universal appeal
        • 4) Denoms do not claim a monopoly on truth
        • 5. Unlike churches, a denomination does not identify with the state and believes in separation of church and state
        • 6. Some denominations place more restrictions on their members
      • Steve Bruce suggests that denoms have become more important in society with rise of religious pluaralism
    • Sects
      • Troeltsch 8 features of Sects
        • 1. Small memberships than church or denoms
        • 2. The membership base of sects is drawn from lower social classes
        • 3. Sects are not aligned with state
        • 4. Reject norms and values of mainstream society. Sects are deatched and opposed to society
        • 5. Sects demand a high level of commitment from their members
        • 6. They don't have 'inclusive membership'. Membership has to be conscious and voluntary
        • 7. Sects tend to possess a monopoly on truth
        • 8. Sects have a charismatic leader
    • Cults
      • Examples of Cults: Scientology, Transcendental mediation
      • Key features
        • Cults tend to lack a fixed religious doctrine, and typically have very loose religious beliefs
        • Tend to be more individualistic than other forms of religion
        • Members tend to be more like customers: free to come and free to go
        • Unlike sects lack strict rules. There is little commitment
        • They are tolerant of other religions beliefs


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