ancient Philosophy

  • Created by: helenalr
  • Created on: 12-06-22 12:51
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  • ancient philosophy
    • Plato
      • theory of the forms
        • analogy of the cave
          • book: republic
          • men chained in cave, thinks puppet's shadows are reality, one breaks free along "jagged path" into real world with sun (form of good), etc. goes back and they don't believe him
          • demonstrates the theory of the forms and the importance of questioning our realities
        • there is a perfect form of everything
          • world of appearances is an imperfect copy
          • hierarchy
            • form of good at the top
          • perfect forms of jealousy, hate, spite?
        • our souls are immortal and were previously in the WoF
          • soul remembering forms = anamnesis
            • meno the slave boy  - solved puzzle with reason
        • criticised by Dawkins
      • a priori / rationalism
      • types of knowledge
        • episteme = true knowledge comes from reason and knowledge of the forms
        • doxa = knowledge that is appears to be true from the world of appearances
    • Aristotle
      • a posteriori / empiricism
      • everything is changing (motus)
        • from actuality to potentiality
      • four causes
        • 1) matierial cause - what it's made from
        • 2) formal cause - form or shape
        • 3) efficient cause - process that makes something happen
        • 4) final cause - purpose / telos
      • prime mover
        • universe is in constant motion
          • PM creates change by drawing things towards it
        • independent, eternal, perfect, transcendent, inactive
        • objected by theists because of impersonal nature and lack of interaction
      • criticised for lack of clarity and being difficult to follow
      • telos for everything criticised by Russell, Satre, Dawkins and others


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