Applied Life Science Infection Revision

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  • The Process of Infection
    • 2. Invasion
      • Infectious agent can invade surrounding tissues/other sites.
      • Mechanisms are developed to penetrate tissues and avoid hosts nonspecific/specific defences ef immunity and inflammation.
    • 4. Spread
      • Produce localised infections without spread to other regions of the body.
      • Others highly invasive- may enter lymphatics, blood, internal organs.
      • Successful spread relies on virulence factors eg adhesion molecules, toxins + protection against host's inflammatory + immune system.
      • Fungi are opportunistic!
      • If host has an  intact immune system, microorganism remain localised.
      • If host's immune or inflammatorysystem is compromised then infection may spread rapidly!
    • 3. Multiplication
      • Warm, nutrient filled host environment.
      • Undergo rapid multiplication- replicate within infected cells (viral pathogens).
      • Replicate in macrophages+ other cells (bacterial pathogens).
    • 1. Colonisation
      • The presence of a microorganism in a host without interaction with the organism.
      • Infectious microorganisms exist in resevoirs eg; environment (contaminated water, soil), animals or infected human.
      • Transmitted via direct contact, or indirect eg vectors,or direct exposure eg oral transmission.
      • Human-to-human transmission by aerosolised microorganisms in droplets or physical contact eg sexual contact or blood transfusion.


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