• Created by: rosiel05
  • Created on: 03-10-22 17:56
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  • Approaches
    • Wilhelm Wundt
      • First experimental psychology lab in 1879
      • Used introspection
        • conscious examination of conscious experience
      • Wanted to separate psychology from philosphy
    • Behavourism
      • Idea we can explain behaviour through what we observe and in terms of learning
      • Two types of learning which are classical and operant
      • Classical conditioning
        • unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, neutral stimulus, conditioned stimulus, conditioned response
        • Pavlov's experiment
          • Dog associating food with the ringing of a bell
        • Watson's Little Albert experiment
          • Creating phobia of animal in a baby by associating the animal with a noise that startles the baby
        • When an individual learns through association of different things
      • Operant conditioning
        • the idea that we learn through trail and error/consequences
        • negative reinforcement, positive reinforcement, punishment and extinction
        • Skinner box experiment
          • rat pulls a lever to get food and will get more each time lever is pulled
          • rat pulls lever to stop the shocks on the floor of the box
          • produced variable ratios
            • prolongs repetition of behaviour
    • Social learning theory
      • Argue that we learn through observation and imitation of others
      • Vicarious reinforcement
        • reinforcement which is not directly experienced
      • mediational processes
        • The factors must happen: attention, retention, motor reproduction and motivation
          • Attention and retention relate to learning the behaviour
          • Motor reproduction and motivation relate to performing the behaviour
      • Identification
        • people are much more likely to imitate behaviour of those who they identify with
        • Role models and modelling
      • Bandura's Bobo doll study, 1961
        • Studies agression
        • Children copy the actions that the adult does to the bobo doll (large inflatable doll)
          • Punch it, hit it, throw it in the air, etc


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