Atomic structure

  • Created by: Epic Al
  • Created on: 22-06-22 17:04
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  • Atomic Structure
    • Atoms
      • Each element is one type of atom
      • elements are arranged in groups
        • these elements will generally have similar properties
      • Have a nucleus surrounded by electrons
      • elements reacting their atoms join and create a compound
    • Chemical Equations
      • No atoms are created or destroyed
      • There is the same number of each type of atom on each side of a balanced equation
      • You can include state symbols for extra information
        • (s) for solids (l) for liquids (g) for gases
    • Separating Mixtures
      • A mixture is made up of 2 or more substances
      • not chemically combined
      • Can be separated by physical means such as filtration
    • Fractional Distillation
      • Separates miscible liquids
      • works because the liquids have different boiling points
    • Chromatography
      • separates mixtures of substances
      • the substances move different lengths up the paper
      • different solubilities of solvents used
    • History of the atom
      • Dalton suggested they were tiny hard spheres
      • Thomson created the plum pudding model
        • first electrons in a model
      • Rutherford proposed the nuclear model
        • electrons orbit around a nucleus
      • Bohr suggested that electrons were orbiting in shells
        • a certain distance from the nucleus
      • Chadwick found the neutrons in the nucleus
    • Structure of the atom
      • Atoms are made of electrons, protons and neutrons
        • Neutrons dont have a charge
        • electrons have a -1 charge
      • Have an equal number of protons and electron so no charge
      • Atomic number = number of protons/ electrons
      • Mass number = protons + neutrons
    • Ions, Atoms, and Isotopes
      • atoms that gain electrons form negative ions
      • Atoms that lose electrons create positive ions
      • Mass number is top, Atomic number is bottom
      • Isotopes are atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons
        • This effects physical properties
    • Electronic structures
      • Electrons are arranged in energy levels or shells
      • lowest shell can hold 2 electrons, all others hold 8
      • the shells fill up before moving to the next
      • the number of electrons in the outer shell determine its reactive properties


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