Attribution Theory

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  • Attribution Theory
    • The process of giving reasons for behaviour & ascribing causes for events
      • Weiner's Model
    • Locus of Causality
      • The cause of the performance outcome
      • Linked to internal and external factors such as task difficulty and ability
      • Internal
        • Under the control of the performer
      • External
        • Beyond the control of the performer
    • Stability Dimension
      • Linked to task difficulty and luck
      • Describes how fixed the attributions are
      • Stable
        • Factors that are fixed and don't change
      • Unstable
        • Factors which can vary with time
    • Successful performers/ high achievers
      • Attribute success to INTERNAL FACTORS
      • Attribute failure to EXTERNAL FACTORS
    • Unsuccessful performers/ low achievers
      • Attribute success to EXTERNAL factors
      • Attribute failure to INTERNAL factors
    • Task persistence
      • To create task persistence a coach should attribute success to internal factors
        • The greater the effort and in turn task persistence the greater the success
    • Self-serving bias
      • Blame only external factors for failure
      • Blame internal factors only for success
      • Have to use this to protect self esteem
    • Attribution Retraining
      • Goal setting
        • Process or task based goals
          • Experience success
            • Short term goals
              • Long term goals are too long
                • Too many variables to influence success
      • Positive reinforcement
        • Using praise and encouragement
          • Always linked to internal stable factors
            • easy to do and no cost
              • Coach has to maintain this approach or behaviour will quickly revert back
      • Past experiences
        • Illustrate they have achieved or performed the skill successfully before
          • Can focus the performer and improve confidence
            • Makes it relatable
              • If not enough performance sot draw on becomes difficult to visualise
      • Mastery orientation
        • Develop a strong motive to succeed
          • Found in high achievers
        • Can increase task persistence
          • Can take a long time to develop
    • Learned helplessness
      • A person perceives that his or her participation will not have any effect on the desired outcome of a task or skill
      • As a consequenceof repeated failures
        • Attribute failure internally repeatedly


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