augustines teachings on human nature

  • Created by: helenalr
  • Created on: 01-11-22 16:08
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  • augustine on human nature
    • augustine!
      • born in North Africa during the time of the Roman Empire
      • manichees: believed the world is engaged in a battle between good and evil, everyone has two souls
      • neoplatonism
      • converted to christianity aged 32
      • had a mistress and a child - non conventional view on women and marriage
    • original sin
      • Adam and Eve were created by god in Genesis and told not to touch the tree of knowledge
        • eve was tempted by the serpent (satan) and they ate the fruit
          • this was the original sin and disobeying of gods will
            • counter: god's omniscience
            • this corrupted human nature and made it so that free will is intrinsically bound with sin
            • cupiditas: selfish love, desire and consumerism
              • concupiscence: uncontrollable desire for physical pleasures and things
                • after the fall (post-lapsarian) Adam and Eve felt shame about being naked - the creation of lust
                  • also created epistemic distance between god and humans
                    • humans created divide
          • women are more likely to sin than men
            • give in to temptation
          • sinned because of pride?
        • their marriage before the fall was more like a friendship, without lust
          • caritas: generous love, same as agape
          • concordia: human friendship
        • imago dei
        • had a close relationship with god
      • sin is now passed down through sex because we were all seminally present in Adam
        • why Jesus had to be born of a virgin!!
        • evil in the world is because of humans misuse of free will
        • argued with Pelagius!
          • augustine believed that people were unable to live morally pure lives
            • can only be saved by gods grace through Christs sacrifice
            • human will was divided after the fall
              • akrasia: knowlingly doing something you know is bad
              • Paul: "I am sold as a slave to sin", "I do ... the evil I do not want to do"
                • sinning against his will
          • Pelagius believed we could if we tried
    • grace
      • the only way the relationship between humanity and god can be restored
      • Jesus' sacrifice on the cross relieved humans of original sin
      • augustine nicknamed the "doctor of grace"
      • humans cannot be saved by reason or by doing good
      • summum bonum: highest, supreme good
        • similar to the form of the good (plato)
        • eternal happiness
        • in the presence of god
      • can only go to heaven/ achieve summer bonum if chosen by god - limited election


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