Bacteria infection revision

  • Created by: cathal828
  • Created on: 19-10-22 13:39
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  • Bacterial infection
    • Bacteria
      • Prokaryotic
        • no enclosed nucleus
        • no mitochondria
        • no membrane bound organelles
        • Bacterial Structure and Functions
          • Introduction to Bacteria
      • Reproduce asexually by simple division of cells
        • Reproduction of Bacteria
        • rapid division
          • rates surpassing the development of protective response
      • Live in soil, water, or air
        • Live as parasites of humans, animals & plants
          • Many pathogenic bacteria reside in humans without causing disease –inadequate numbers or controlled by local defence mechanisms
          • Can infect any area of the body
          • Bacterial survival & growth depends on host’s defence mechanisms & bacteria’s ability to resist the defences
        • Others reside in nature & cause infection by being ingested, entering wounds.
    • Bacterial Pathogenesis: How Bacteria Cause Damage
      • Invasion – direct confrontation with host’s primary defence mechanisms
        • i.e antibodies & phagocytes
        • Bacterial survival & growth depends on
          • effectiveness of body’s defences
          • the bacterium’s capacity to resist the defences
            • Protection against phagocytosis - bacteria produce thick capsules of carbohydrate or protein – antiphagocytic
              • injure cells, disrupt tissue & protect against inflammation
                • by producing exotoxins
                  • Exotoxins = proteins released during bacterial growth – a poisonous substance
                • Endotoxins
                  • released during lysis (destruction) of the bacteria
                    • = pyrogenic bacteria - they activate inflammatory response & produce fever
              • combine with portions of the host’s antibodies & form a protective coat
          • nutrient availability and multiply
    • Bacteremia
      • bacteria being transported in the blood
        • infect other organs or multiplying in the blood (Sepsis)


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