Biological Factors

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  • Biological Factors
    • Maternal infections
      • If a pregnant mother is exposed to or has an infection the foetus may be affected
      • Rubella is an example of an infection a mother could get
        • Rubella = type of measles
      • Rubella is extremely dangerous in the 1st month of pregnancy
        • Could lead to the baby being born with:
          • Impaired eyesight
          • Impaired hearing
          • A damaged heart
    • Congenital defects
      • Congenital = present from birth
      • Most common defects
        • Heart defects
        • Down's syndrome
        • Neural tube defects
          • Spinal bifida
          • Congenital defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord
      • Can be genetic but other factors can also be responsible
        • Socio-economic factors such as a lack of sufficient nutritious food during pregnancy could lead to these defects
      • Environmental factors
        • Working or living in polluted areas
        • Exposure to chemicals or pesticides
        • Excessive use of tobacco, alcohol, and drugs during pregnancy
      • Some defects can be prevented by adequate antenatal care
        • Adequate intake of nutrients
          • Minerals
          • Vitamins
            • Folic acid
        • Vaccination
        • Screening


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