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  • Bowlby
    • Monotropy
      • The idea that we have one main attachment figure, the quality of which determines the quality of all future attachements
        • AO3
          • Van Ijzendoorn found that some cultures form many attachments. In these cultures children are raised collectively and this does not lead to poor attachment quality later in life.
          • Schaffer and Emerson's stages of attachment state that part of development is forming multiple attachements
    • Critical Period
      • A period of time during which attachment can be formed and all attachment mechanisms are at their peak. 2 years.
        • AO3
          • Rutter found that orphans not adopted in six months were underdeveloped both physiologically and mentally.
    • Social Releasers
      • A set of innate behaviours designed to get the attention of the caregiver
        • Grabbing
        • Cooing
        • AO3
          • Brazeldon et al. found that babies do not respond positively to being ignored
            • Social releasers are important for reciprocity and interactional synchrony
    • Internal Working Model
      • The model for all future attachments and relationships, based on the quality of the monotropic primary attachment figure.
    • Law of Continuity
      • The idea that interruption in attachment damage a child's internal working model.
        • The more constant and predictable to attachment, the stronger the IWM
        • Privation
          • Never forming a primary attachment
        • Deprivation
          • Being separated from the primary attachment figure for a prolonged amount of time
      • Law of accumulated separation
        • The amount of time a child is separated from the primary attachment figure adds up to have problematic effects
    • 44 Thieves
      • Conducted a study on the effects of accumulated separation on young offenders at an institution where he worked.
        • Sample of 44 emotionally disturbed thieves compared with a control group of 44 emotionally stable thieves
        • Findings
          • 14 of the thieves were what Bowlby described as "affectionless"
            • None of these were in the control group
          • 17 of the thieves had suffered maternal deprivation
            • 2 of these were in the control group
        • AO3
          • Reductionist - ignores the other factors that may contribute to delinquent behaviour such as childhood abuse.
          • Sample - all male opportunity sample, meaning it was both androcentric and hadn't seen screened for extraneous variables.
          • Researcher bias - as Bowlby was attempting to prove his own theories, there is a chance that he interpreted what he found in the context of his own work, this damages the internal validity.


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