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  • Bowlbey's Theory of Attachment
    • Attachment = Emotional bond that connects the child to their primary care giver
    • Bowlby worked with emotionally disturbed children
      • He linked the importance of social, emotional, and cognitive development to the relationship with their mother
    • Bowlby believed
      • That infants were biologically programmed to form positive attachments
      • Infants cry and smile (releasers) to increase their chance of receiving care
      • Babies have an attachment gene
      • When infants are stressed they seek close proximity to their primary care giver
      • Separation anxiety can be caused by separation at an early care from their primary care giver
      • Primary care givers give the infant the feeling of safety
    • Theory
      • Maternal depravation in the child's early life caused permanent emotional damage
      • He diagnosed a condition called Affectionless Psychopathy
        • Involves a lack of emotinal development
        • Characterised by a lack of concern for others
        • Lack of guilt
        • Inability to form meaningful and lasting relationships
    • Criticisms of his theory
      • Rutter
        • Bowlby did not distinguish between maternal deprivation and privation
        • Suggests that the quality of the attachment is the most important aspect
        • Suggests that privation is more damaging
        • Behaviour is learnt and influenced by external factors
          • Environment
          • Culture
          • Baby's temperament
      • Critics state that attachment is not a biological process
        • Nature vs Nurture
      • Schafer and Emerson
        • Suggests that individuals respond effectively to signals rather than who they spend the most time with
    • Ainsworth and Bowlby
      • Attachment bonds are made in the first two years of life
      • The first bond could influence later ability to form relationships
      • Ainsworth developed Bowlby's work
        • Created the Strange Situation experiment where she observed children
      • Strange Situation
        • Where a parent briefly leaves the infant playing while a stranger is present


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