British aims in Egypt and Sudan in the years 1875 to 1898 were defensive, not expansionist

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  • Created on: 27-05-18 15:59
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  • British aims in Egypt and Sudan in the years 1875 to 1898 were defensive, not expansionist
    • Rise of the Arabi Pasha revolt in 1882, which was designed to overthrow Ottoman rule over Egypt and also remove duel control over Egypt from Britain and France = strategic, for defense of the Suez Canal.
      • 80% of the ships using the Suez Canal by 1875
        • 13% of all British foreign trade went through the Suez Canal
        • Suez allowed for rapid deployment of Imperial troops. Vital to the Empire after the threat of the 1857 Indian Mutiny
        • 6,000 British troops added to the Egyptian army to uphold order.
      • Significantly quicker to reach India than going around Cape Colony
      • Anglo-French Rescue Plan resulted in mass poverty of the Egyptian people as well as riots and further rebellion
    • Britain determined to get Egypt back on its feet via the Anglo-French Rescue Plan. Shows importance of Egypt to Britain and the future of the British Empire
    • Egypt very important to Britain economically
      • 40% of Egypt's imports very British
    • Stable Ottoman Empire vital to Britain's interest in Northern Africa
      • Overland route to India involved going through Ottoman territory
        • Threat from Russia expanding into Egypt and taking control of the Suez Canal
          • Also threatened India
    • Britain worried that if Egypt became a free state then it may form its own alliances with threats to the British Empire,;such as ,France
    • 37% of Gladstone's portfolio was in Egyptian bonds. Meant that he had a personal vendetta to protect Egypt
    • The British controlled the Sudan as a result of taking over Egypt as a protectorate since Egypt ruled over the Sudan before the British had arrived
      • British control of the Sudan led to the rise of the Mahdi in 1881 who opposed Egyptian and European influence in Sudan
        • Largely due to the abolishment of the slave trade in Sudan
      • Gladstone disapproved of expanding the British Empire and attempted to focus on improving the colonies they already possessed and moving them towards self-government
        • He understood the fact that the Sudanese were 'rightly struggling to be free'
          • Good example to show the difference between Gladstone and Disraeli's foreign policy in Empire.


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