C1. 1 - Fundamental Ideas

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  • C1.1 - Fundamental Ideas
    • 1.1
      • All substances are made from atoms.
      • Elements are made of only one type of atom.
      • Chemical symbols are used to represent atoms.
      • Compounds contain more than one element.
    • 1.3
      • The atoms of the unreactive noble gases (group 0) all have stable arrangements of electrons.
      • Electrons in atoms are in energy levels that can be represented by shells.
      • Electrons occupy the lowest energy levels first.
      • Electrons in the lowest energy level are in the shell closest to the nucleus.
      • All the elements in the same group of the periodic table have the same number of electrons in their outer shell.
    • 1.4
      • Metal and non-metal = ionic.
      • The formula of an ionic compound shows the simplest ratio of ions.
      • Non-metal and non-metal = covalent.
      • The formula of a molecule shows the number of atoms in the molecule.
      • Metal and metal = metallic.
    • 1.5
      • Atoms get rearranged in chemical reactions.
      • The mass of the products is equal to the mass of reactants.
      • Symbol equations should always be balanced.
    • 1.2
      • The nucleus of an atom is made of protons and neutrons.
      • Protons have a positive charge.
      • Electrons have a negative charge.
      • Neutrons have no charge.
      • The atomic number of an element is equal to the number of protons.
      • Elements are arranged in order of their atomic numbers in the periodic table.
      • The mass number is the sum of the protons and neutrons.
      • The number of electrons is the same as the number of protons.
      • The number of neutrons is the mass number - atomic number.


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