C2- The Periodic table

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  • Created on: 05-05-22 18:20
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  • C2- The Periodic table
    • How are the elements arranged?
      • Metals found on the left hand side of the periodic table.
      • Non-metals found on the right hand side.
      • Arranged in rows called periods
      • Arranged in columns called groups.
      • Elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number.
      • Elements in the same group have similar properties.
        • Groups contain elements with similar chemical and physical properties.
          • For example: Group 1 metals are all reactive, whilst elements in group 0 are all unreactive gases.
          • Melting points.
          • Level of reactivity.
      • The group the element is is tells us how many electrons there are in the outer shell.
    • Dmitri Mendeleev
      • Produced one of the first practical periodic tables in the 19th century.
      • His ideas were:
        • The elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number.
        • Horizontal rows are called periods.
          • Vertical columns are called groups.
        • Elements in the same group are similar to each other.
      • He wrote down the names of the elements on cards to help him look for patterns.
        • He put the cards in order of lightest to heaviest based on the chemical and physical properties of each element.
    • Properties of metals and non-metals
      • Chemical properties- chemical changes when chemical reactions occur. Can involve the formation of new chemical elements or compounds.
        • Physical properties- a substance simply chnaging physical state. For example, liquid to solid.
      • PHYSICAL
        • By applying force. If something is brittle, the object may snap. If something is flexible the object will bend.
        • By observing a solid's melting point, and a liquid's boiling point.
      • CHEMICAL
        • Observing how elements react with air.
        • Measure the pH of a liquid.
    • Noble gases (g0)
      • Already have complete outer shells
        • This is why they are inert and do not take part in chemical reactions.
        • They are unreactive.
      • They have low densities
        • They are not flammable.
          • Boiling point increases going down the group.
            • Because the intermolecular forces become stronger.
            • Density increases going down the group
    • Alkali metals (g1)
      • Reactivity increases going down the group.
        • Bc, the atoms become larger
        • Outer electron becomes further from the nucleus.
        • force of attraction between the nucleus and the outer electron decreases.
          • outer electron is lost more easily
      • They are soft- can be cut with a knife.
        • Have relatively low melting points


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