GCSE food and nutrition- carbohydrates.

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  • Carbohydrates
    • Sugar
      • e.g Glucose and Fructose can be found naturally or can be added to food during the manufacturing process.
      • added sugars are often referred to as empty calories- they have no nutritional benefits.
    • Starch
      • Can be found in foods such as bread, pasta, rice and cereals. (as well as vegetables and fruit).
      • Starchy foods contain lots of nutrients including B Vitamins, Iron and Calcium.
    • When we eat carbohydrates our bodies break down the sugar and starch into glucose which is absorbed and used for energy.
    • simple carbohydrates such as sugar can be divided into monosaccharides and disaccharides.
      • Mono saturates are the most basic sugar molecules.
      • Disacchirades are made up of two monosaccharides
      • the body rapidly digests simple carbohydrates which makes blood sugar levels rise quickly providing a short burst of energy.
    • Polysacchraides are made up of lots of monosaccharides joined together.
      • complex carbohydrates take a lot longer to digest than simple ones, so they gradually increase blood sugar levels and provide a slow steady release of energy.
    • The Glycaemic Index shows how carbs affect blood sugar levels.
      • High GI: foods are quickly digested quickly and cause a rapid rise in blood sugar levels. e.g. bread pasta rice.
      • Low GI: foods are digested slowly and cause a gradual rise in blood sugar levels. e.g. wholemeal bread/pasta brown rice
      • The glycaemic index is especially useful for diabetics as they can chose low GI carbohydrates that would cause a surge in there blood sugar levels.




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