AS Biology OCR Carbohydrates

  • Created by: Sorcha
  • Created on: 10-04-13 11:00
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  • Carbohydrates
    • Functions in organisms
      • Structure
        • e.g. cellulose
      • Energy Store
        • e.g. Starch
      • To form larger molecules
        • e.g. Nucleic acids, glycolipids
      • Energy Source
        • released from glucose during respiration
    • Simple Sugars
      • called monosaccharides. these are monomers of carbohydrates.
      • Properties
        • SWEET tasting
        • SOLUBLE in water
        • forms CRYSTALS
    • Two forms of Glucose
      • Beta-glucose
        • the OH at C1 is  above the plane of the ring
        • Beta-glucose molecules bonded through many condensation molecules form a long straight chain
        • They are much stronger than that of amylose..therefore used for structural units
          • e.g. Cellulose
        • we do  not produce an enzyme to break down beta-glucose because of the different arrangement
      • The different structures of glucose leads to different properties
      • Alpha-glucose
        • the OH at C1 is below the plane of the ring
        • Two alpha-glucose molecules bonded together form Maltose..then to form amylose.
          • this has a 1,4 glycosidic bond, therefore causing the chain to coil
        • Animals and plants have an enzyme to break down alpha glucose..therefore can be used for respiration


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