Changes strengthening Russia by 1914

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  • Changes strengthening Russia by 1914
    • Political
      • The autocracy had been weakened and a fairer form of constitutional monarchy seemed to be emerging
      • Russia had an elected parliament- the Duma- which along with the zemstva provided a forum for debate about policies and legislation, involving the people in law making
      • Since 1905, the liberal, educated classes had grown more conservative in outlook in their wish to distance themselves from the excesses of workers and radical groups
      • The undermining of the Dumas, police activity, and internal squabbles helped to weaken the revolutionary groups- the Marxists were particularly divided
    • Economic
      • Industrial development had been impressive and Russia had been able to compete on fairer terms with the West
      • Russia's economy saw an annual growth rate of >8% per annum from 1894-1913
      • The kulaks had established themselves as prosperous agricultural workers, increasing Russian output and supporting the country's industrial growth
      • Railway trackage virtually doubled, helping to open up Russian interior and allowing a more extensive exploitation of raw materials. The building of railway lines was a stimulus to the development of iron and coal industries. Transport costs fell, bringing down the price of goods, while the gov made money from freight charges and passenger fares
      • An injection of money was found after 1905 to make good the losses of the Russo-Japanese war and re-equip the army
    • Social
      • There had been an expansion in the no of professionally qualified people, e.g. doctors, teachers, lawyers, etc.
      • Russia experienced educational and worker's conditions improvements through state welfare legislation
      • The position of the peasantry was improving, thanks to the work of Stolypin


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