Changes weakening Russia by 1914

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  • Changes weakening Russia by 1914
    • Economic
      • Workers' wages did not rise high enough to keep in line with the 40% rise in inflation
      • Conditions in factories were grim and workers lacked effective trade unions and legal production, and so remained at the mercy of employers
      • Stolypin's aim for peasants to become permanent owners of their own land was a failure- only 10% of land had been transferred from communal to private ownership by 1914
      • Agriculture lacked capital investment and technological advancements Livestock productivity was backwards, e.g. a lack of grazing land caused livestock to graze in fallow land
    • Social
      • There was a shortage of teachers and doctors to provide for neglected rural areas
      • There was a 60% illiteracy among the population as many children received no more than the basic education
      • Around 4/5 of the population remained peasnatry
    • Political
      • A wave of industrial unrest hit Russia in 1912-1914
      • Between 1905- 1909 there were thousands of terrorist assassinations and woundings
      • Nicholas desired to play a world historical role that helped fuel the militarism in Europe and was pushing it towards war in 1914
      • Duma powers were limited- their position had been eroded by Stolypin and the Fundamental Laws had restated the power of tsarist autocracy
      • Russia was ruled by a Tsar who failed to assess the social and political consequences of economic modernisation
      • The tsarist autocracy was reactionary, oppressive, and inefficient, e.g. it persecuted national minorities, propped up a Church riddled with superstition and allowed administration to be placed in the hands of incompetent leaders (both in the army and civil government), etc.


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