Changing Spaces; Making Places 3. How does economic change influence patterns of social inequality in places?

  • Created by: DanBish
  • Created on: 07-05-22 01:00
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  • How does economic change influence patterns of social inequality in places?
    • The distribution of resources, wealth and opportunities are not evenly spread within and between places.
      • Jembatan Besi, Jakarta, Indonesia
        • Social and Economic conditions
          • Average income is $4/day, but isn't regular
          • Self-employment, families running small businesses
          • Sanitation hardly exists, few homes have toilets, and those that are there are poorly built and run for profit
          • No clean running watter, and ground water is polluted
        • Housing conditions
          • One of the most densely populated places in Indonesia
          • Homes consist of timber/brick floor, with makeshift extra floors
          • Fire is constant risk, with use of kerosene and improvised electrical wires
      • Northwood, Irvine, Southern California
        • Social and Economic conditions
          • Median income is $52,250 per year
          • High-tech companies such as Blizzard Entertainment Broadcom and aerospace firms
          • Excellent healthcare, with little air pollution
          • Amonst the best-achieving schools in the USA
          • 70% lower crime rate than the national average
        • Housing conditions
          • Single-family houses on relative large 'lots'
          • Most households own their own home, 2/3's have lived in Northwood for > 10 years
    • Processes of economic change can create opportunities for some while creating and exacerbating social inequality for others.
      • Methods used to tackle social and economic inequalities
        • Taxation
          • Income tax used to redistribute wealth from more to less prosperous - richer pay more tax
        • Subsidies
          • Governments give subsidies to poorer groups - free school meals, clothing fees etc
        • Planning
          • Governments, charities and housing agencies give upgrading housing and services priority in poorer areas
        • Law
          • Legislation exists which outlaws discrimination on racial, ethnic, gender and age criteria, giving equal opportunities
        • Education
          • Governments often provide funding for training and upgrading skills in order to raise skill levels and qualifications, improve employment prospects and boost economic growth
    • Social inequality impacts people and places in different ways.
      • Social inequality - Differences based on factors that raise moral issues concerning inequality.
        • Housing
          • Whether you own your house or rent
        • Healthcare
          • Association with poverty and ill-health
        • Education
          • Contrasts in literacy levels
        • Employment
          • If a household includes someone with regular income
      • Why they vary within places
        • Wealth
          • Formal qualifications mean less chance of job - no disposable income
        • Health
          • Link between ill-health and deprivation, like sub-standard housing, poor diet, unhealthy lifestyle and stress of living in poverty
        • Education
          • Differing access to educational opportunities - literacy rates being lower, therefore being less skilled
        • Housing
          • Quality of accommo-dation influences inequality - homeless-ness / bad living conditions


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