Chemical Equilibrium

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  • Chemical Equilibrium
    • The features of dynamic equilibrium are;
      • The rate of the forward reaction is the same as the backwards reaction
      • The system must be closed. That means that it must not be possible for reactants or products to enter or leave the system
      • Macroscopic properties are constant
    • Effect of changing conditions of equilibria
      • If a chemical reaction has reached equilibrium and the conditions are changed than the position of equilibrium changes
      • Le Chatelier's Principle
        • When one of the conditions affecting the position of a dynamic equilibrium is altered, then the position of equilibrium will shift in the direction that opposes the change
      • Temperature
        • If an equilibrium mixture is cooled, the equilibrium will shift in the direction that gives out heat and therefore opposes the cooling
        • If an equilibrium mixture of the three gases is heated, the equilibrium will shift to the left because the reaction in this direction is endothermic and the equilibrium will shift in the direction which tends to absorb some of the extra heat
      • Pressure
        • At a given temperature, the pressure in a gas mixture depends on the total number of moles of gas
        • An equilibrium can oppose a pressure increase by shifting in the direction where there are fewer moles of gas
      • A catalyst does not affect the position of an equilibrium
    • Conditions for Industrial Processes
      • Discuss effect on;
        • Equilibrium Yield
        • Rate of reaction
        • Cost and safety considerations


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