Biology 1.1 Classification

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  • Classification
    • science of placing organisms into categories on the basis of observable characteristics
      • taxonomists study classification
    • need for classification
      • so many different types of organisms so impossible to study without ordered way of classifying them
        • classification keys
          • series of questions that place organisms into groups
            • dichotomous keys
              • branched
                • branches that look like staples take up space
              • listed
              • yes or no answer
          • derived from characteristics of living organisms based on morphology and anatomy
      • understand evolutionary relationships
        • common ancestors
          • organisms with many of the same features accent from common ancestors
      • conservation
        • scientists need to be able to identify organisms habitats that they manage and so they can control the organism
    • Hierarchy of classification
      • Carolus Linnaeus
        • gave  every living organism a binomial name (two part name) based on body structure of an organism
        • binomial nomenclature = genus + species
      • hierarchy of classification of a lion
        • Kingdom = Animalia
          • Phylum = chordata
            • (vertebrates)
            • Class = mammalia
              • have fur and mammary glands
              • Order = Carnivora
                • carnassial - flesh cutting teeth
                • Family = Felidae
                  • retractable claws
                  • Genus = Panthera
                    • Big Cats (can't purr but roar)
                    • Species = Panthera Leo
                      • mate and produce offspring with other members of species
    • newly discovered species
      • classified based on characteristicsof...
        • protein structure
          • where an organism shares a more recent ancestor they are closely related
            • this can be seen in amino sequences in proteins Haemoglobin
        • DNA structure
          • closely related organisms have similar base sequences in DNA as
            • there as been less evolutionary time for mutation to change these base sequences
              • humans and chimpanzees share 98.6% of their genes


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