Coasts 1. How can coastal landscapes be viewed as systems?

  • Created by: DanBish
  • Created on: 04-05-22 11:34
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  • How can coastal landscapes be viewed as systems
    • Coastal landscapes can be viewed as systems
      • Input -> Store -> Output -> Feedback to Input
      • Coast is open system - Energy and material enter and leave (Kinetic, Potential, Thermal)
    • Coastal landscape systems are influenced by a range of physical factors
      • Wind
        • Differential in energy input from sun at poles compared to equator
        • Movement of air via circulation cells causes wind
        • Longer fetch = more energy = more erosion
        • Swash = wind pushing wave up beach, Backwash= gravity pulling it down
      • Waves
        • Formed if wind speed higher than speed of capillary wave
        • Plunging = Medium height, steep slope Spilling = Large height, gentle slope, Surging = Small height, very steep slope
        • Constructive waves build up beaches (strong swash), destructive erode (strong backwash)
      • Tides
        • Moon pulls water towards it, high tide and in between there are low tide
        • Spring tide is when Moon, Sun and Earth lined up - highest tide - and Neap tide is when Moon, Sun and Earth at right angles - lowest tide.
        • Tidal range is height between high tide and low tide at a point on the coast
      • Geology
        • Lithology is rock type + physical properties
          • Erosion - Resistant rocks are strong, resisting erosion, non resistant rocks are weak, easily eroded
          • Rocks containing calcium carbonate susceptible to chemical weathering, carbonic acid in sea water dissolves in rock
        • Structure is jointing, bedding, faulting and permeability
          • Joints are vertical cracks, bedding planes horizontal cracks, Faults are tectonic cracks, horizontal or vertical
          • Primary permeability = small holes, secondary permeability = joints/ bedding planes
      • Currents
        • Global currents caused by equator gaining more solar energy than poles
        • Warm water flows from equator to poles on surface, cold water from poles to equator on floor
    • Coastal sediment is supplied from a variety of source
      • Terrestrial sources
        • Fluvial (river) deposition
        • Cliff weathering and mass movement
        • Marine erosion
        • Longshore drift
        • Aeolian (wind) dsposition
      • Marine Sources
        • Marine deposition
      • Human Sources
        • Beach nourishment


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