Coasts - Casestudies

  • Created by: emg02
  • Created on: 07-03-21 14:54
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  • Coasts
    • Sundarbans
      • In India, on the largest delta
        • The land around the delta is shared between indigenous people and those who live in urban areas
          • There is conflict over water use between urban and indigenous people, but also between different indigenous groups
      • Susceptible to tropical storms, especially with mangrove deforestation for tourism and building development
        • The main industries are mineral abstraction and fishing. This can cause disaster, such as the decline in pink dolphins after an oil leak from a barge that capsized during a storm surge
      • Mangrove forests act as a coastal defence against storm surges and tsunamis and provide breeding habitats for rare marine species such as the pink river dolphin
        • The waters in the delta are murky and protected by mangrove roots. This means marine offspring are usually well-protected here
      • The local Bengal tigers are a danger and kill roughly 12 people a year, but are endangered as they're having to move into urban spaces
    • Kiribati
      • An archipelago of islands called atolls, only a few centimetres above sea level, with much of the republic already claimed to the sea
      • There is a major issue because fresh water stores are in underground reservoirs and now sit below sea level
        • This causes sea-water contamination/ salinisation of the fresh water and makes it unusable for drinking and irrigation
        • People have been offered training and jobs in New Zealand to integrate the population as it has to evacuate
          • Many, especially those 30+, don't want to leave their ancestry, their culture, their memories but there is no choice- It's only a matter of how long they can stay
          • It is one of the lowest carbon-emitting countries because there is no car access or electricity
    • Holderness/ Humber/ Mappleton
      • The Holderness coast is mainly made up of chalk and boulder clay, due to the glacial tills left behind after the last ice age
      • Up to 5m of land can retreat along the coast in a year, making life hard for communities such as Mappleton, and businesses such as campsites, farms and holiday resorts
        • The community have tried using groynes, making their own bundts and sea defences, but to no avail
          • The boulder clay is a soft rock and so erodes easily and quickly via hydraulic action, attrition, abrasion and corrasion.
      • At Flamborough Head, the rock type is chalk, which is also a soft rock. It's mainly impacted by freeze-thaw and hydraulic action
        • There is often alot of sediment in the local sediment cells.
      • Spurn Head lies at the Humber Estuary and is a spit where salt marshes and mudflats have formed behind.
    • Canvey Island
      • This is an island in Essex, on the outskirts of London, on the Thames Estuary
        • It's very susceptible to eustatic and isostatic change, in terms of sea level rise and the fact that eustatic rebound did once occur, in Scotland, after the UK was covered in ice in the last ice age.
      • People surround their houses with walls of upto 6m tall, sometimes made up of sandbags, to prevent flooding when storms sweep up the estuary
        • The island is less than 3 inches above sea level and has already faced flooding devastation
          • The locals will eventually have to be relocated.
    • Dorset
      • Dorset has many coastal features in its coastal landscape and this varies depending on the rock type and if the coastline is concordant or discordant
        • Swanage Bay is on the concordant coastline and has larger bays due the greater erosion of the rock type ie Wealden beds, Purbeck rock etc
          • The discordant coastline has more erosional landforms, such as the circular Lulworth Cove and the coastal morphology
            • The stratigraphy at Stair Hole is evident and the arch at Durdle Door is made by hydraulic action and freeze-thaw
              • Durdle Door would once have been a cave in a headland, and will oneday be a stack and stump, like Old Harry Rocks
      • At Swanage Bay, rotational slumping can be seen in the softer rocks and many sea defences are employed, including groynes, rip rap and beach replenishment
        • The nearby cliffs often suffer from biological and chemical weathering, because many people walk the footpaths, there is local wildlife and vegetation that burrows into the soils, and acid rain easily erodes the chalk rock.


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