Cognitive Psychology

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  • Cognitive Psychology
    • Four Memory Theories
      • Working Memory Model
        • Dual task Hypothesis; doing 2 similar tasks at the same time is much harder than doing 2 different tasks, STM only
        • Central Executive; decides how attention is directed, no storage capacity
        • Phonological loop; only auditory and focuses on how it comes in
          • Auditory Store; holds speech based information for 1-2 seconds
          • Articulatory control process; rehearses verbal info to keep it in the stor
        • Visuospatial Sketchpad; holds info for a very short time, used when planning spatial tasks ie walikng to school
        • Episodic Buffer; general storage space, intergrates info from all parts of this model
      • Multi-Store Model
        • Sensory Register; info from senses, limited capacity, lasts a few seconds, its stored the way it comes in
          • concentrate on something
            • Short Term memory; can hold 7+/- 2 items, lasts for 18-30 secs, stored auditorily, you have to rehears it in order for it to stay here
              • rehearse it enough
              • recall it
        • Short Term memory; can hold 7+/- 2 items, lasts for 18-30 secs, stored auditorily, you have to rehears it in order for it to stay here
          • rehearse it enough
          • recall it
        • Long Term memory; it is potentially limitless, can potentially store forever, stored semantically
        • Episodic and Semantic Theory (LTM)
          • Episodic memory; specific evevnts, times and dates, auto-biographical so you encode what you think is important
          • Semantic memory; what things mean, facts or rules, encoded by what it means, allows you to work out things you don't already know
        • Reconstructive Memory
          • The theory that memories aren't exact copies, they're affected by our schemas, if the memory conflicts with a schema, we change it to fit it
            • Schemas: an organised package of information containing our knowledge about the world
          • Reconstructive memory is where there are gaps in our our knowledge and fill them in with our stereotypes, we confabulate
      • Method
        • Effectors
          • Participnat Variables; Ps may bring different characteristics to the study that effect the DV
          • Situational Variables; such as lighting, noise, temeprature etc
          • Experimentor Effects; the way an experimentor causes the participant to change their behaviour by their presence
          • Demand Characteristics; when the participant guesses the aim of the study and changes their actions because of this
        • Experimental Designs
          • Independent Groups; divided into groups, each group does one condition
            • + less likely to guess the aims of the study              - you need double the Ps
          • Repeated Measures; all partake in all conditions
            • + less Ps are needed          - Ps are more likely to display demand characteristics
          • Matched Pairs; participants are matched by important characteristics and are assigned to each condition
            • + all Ps compared fairly               - time consuming
        • Inferential Statistics
          • Levels; nominal (only 1 category), ordinal (order matters) and interval (the difference in values matter)
          • Type 1 error; false positive, reject the null
          • Type 2 error; false negative, fail to reject the null
      • Studies
        • Classic
          • Evaluation
        • Contemporary
          • Evaluation
        • Key Question
          • Explanation
          • Discussion
      • Practical Investigation
        • Basics
          • Our version of Baddeley study
            • No 15 minute 8 digit word task, only the 4 trials
            • Our STM results were the opposite to his; Ps recalled accoustically similar words more accurately than dissimilar
            • Our LTM results were the same however; Ps recalled semantically dissimilar words more accurately


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