Conservatism mindmap pt 3

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  • Conservatism
    • State
      • Order and authority- Main goal is to provide order, security and authority. Without a state there are no clear undisputed laws backed by a firm authority so no order. State precedes society, individual rights are dependent on law and order
      • Organic origins- Conservatives are sceptical of states that arise momentously because they are normative and based on ideals rather than reality. Prefer a state that emerges gradually and unpredictably
      • A ruling class- Reflects the elitist society. Traditional conservative state acknowledges the aristocratic and hereditary power of the ruling class. Merits of a class that were born and trained to rule the state mindful of its paternalistic responsibilities to society
      • The nation-state- From mid-19th century to mid-20th century there is an emphasis on nationhood. Nation became a mega-community that enfolds all classes, basis of the state. Continental conservatives believe nation precedes the state whilst British and American conservatives believe the nation and state are intertwined. British conservatives see a diminution of the nation-state as a diminution of the nation itself. Rand and Nozick believe a nation-state burdened by nationalised industries and welfare states means it's harder to focus on security and order. Rand says "when the state becomes flabby, it also becomes feeble"
      • Overview: The state provides law and order and defence. State is a unifying force that promotes national cohesion and unity. New Right, neoliberal favour the rolling back of the state to allow for a laissez-faire approach
    • Economy
      • Overview: Support the free market and individual enterprise. If the economy prospers and wealth is created then property owners have a stake in society and will not rebel.. One nation conservatives will intervene in the economy if there is a danger of social strife
      • - Capitalism nurtures economic inequalities and conservatism defends inequality and hierarchy. Burke was an ally of Adam Smith who was the father of laissez-faire economic theory
      • - Traditional conservatives are dubbed capitalism's 'reluctant supporters'. An assault on capitalism is an assault on property, inequality, hierarchy and the status quo. Traditional conservatives support a moderated form of capitalism where markets are tempered by state intervention. Protectionism- society and the economy would be insured against the vagaries of markets by state-imposed tariffs and duties, protects national producers and consumers
      • - Traditional conservatives in the 20th century were drawn to Keynesian capitalism whereby the state 'managed' market forces in the interest of full employment
      • - New Right conservatives have a sympathetic view of free-market economies. The USA during the 1980s, free-market capitalism was referred to as 'Reaganomics' and at the same time Thatcher (1979-90) aimed to free the UK economy through privatisation
      • - New Right argues that by disengaging in the economy completely then the state could focus on its true Hobbesian purpose of order and security


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