Control punishment and victims

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  • Control, punishment and victims
    • Approaches to crime prevention
      • Right realist
        • Situational crime prevention (Clarke)
          • A preemptive approach which relies on reducing opportunities for crime to be committed
            • Increase risk and reduce reward for criminals
            • Use of target hardening measures
        • Environmental crime prevention (Wilson and Kelly)
          • Broken window thesis
          • Deal with small/petty crime to prevent spiral of degeneracy
            • Improve the environment immediately ; zero-tolerance
      • Left realist
        • Social/ community crime prevention
          • Tackle the root causes of crime and employ long term strategies and multiagency approach
            • Poverty
            • Unemployment
            • Marginalisation
    • Types of social control
      • Informal
        • Things which mimic formal SC but have no legal consequence
          • Grounding by parents
          • Detention at school
      • Formal
        • Things punishable or enforceable by law
          • Prison
          • Fines
          • Caution
    • Theories of punishment
      • Functionalist
        • Punishment is key in upholding social solidarity and the reinforcement of shared values
          • Retributive justice vs restitutive justice
      • Marxist
        • The role of prisons is changing over time and is now a reformer itself
        • Punishment is key to maintain the social order and defends the ruling class
    • Victimology
      • Positivist
        • Aims to identify factors which produce victimisation patterns
        • Focus on interpersonalcrimes of violence
        • Identify victims which contribute to their own victimisation
      • Critical
        • Structural factors which identify greater risk of victimisation
        • The power of the state to apply or deny victim label
      • Victim patterns
        • Class  - poorest groups most likely to be victims
        • Gender - males more likely tom be victims. Females more likely to be victims of sexual crimes
        • Age  - young people are most at risk. Victimisation declines with age
        • Ethnicity - minorities more likely to be victims
      • Victim surveys e.g British crime survey / Crime surveys of England and Wales
        • Provide evidence for crimes which are not  shown in the dark figure


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