controversies - sexism

  • Created by: Abi Crew
  • Created on: 20-05-22 09:25
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  • sexism
    • gender differences or biases
      • important to establish if there are real differences between genders, or if any difference is the fault of gender bias in the research procdess
      • gender difference in personality
        • physiological differences
        • socialisation
      • differences could be explained by conscious or unconscious gender bias that has affected the psychologists research design
      • where one gender unfairly and inappropriately influences the study of behaviour to the detriment of another
      • alpha bias
        • where differences are overstated and embellished; tends to exaggerate stereotypes
      • beta bias
        • tends to understate, ignore and disregard any differences between genders
    • examples in psychology
      • androcentric view
        • subjects of research are primarily men
        • explanations of behaviour have a male view, often to the detriment of women
      • any gender biased theory or research is flawed
        • cannot be a valid, universal explanation of behaviour
      • applications of research, like therapies
        • may not be as appropriate or effective as they could be
      • could add false credibility to stereotypes and discrimination
    • reducing gender bias in psychology
      • feminist psychologists argue that gender bias can enter the research process at many stages
        • question formation
        • research methodology
        • interpretation and data analysis
        • conclusions
        • publication bias
    • heterocentrism
      • the assumption that everyone is heterosexual
        • ignorance may affect the way in which we select ppts, how we word questions or the conclusions we draw about behaviour
          • eg. just using heterosexual couples in a study about parenting
      • heteronormativity
        • the assumption that heterosexuality is 'normal', therefore anyone who does not align with this is 'abnormal'
        • long history in psychiatry where individuals were 'treated' for non-heterosexual behaviours and feelings
        • pathologising of non-heterosexual behaviour caused a great deal of fear, shame and guilt.
          • this reinforced society's discrimination
      • reducing
        • regulations encourage researchers to avoid heterocentrism
          • APA published Herek (1991) 'avoiding heterosexist bias in psychological research'


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