crime and deviance

  • Created by: ARrevises
  • Created on: 13-02-23 12:18
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  • Crime and deviance
    • functionalism
      • Durkheim - Boundary Maintenance - by having a small amount of crime in the media it reminds people of what is wrong - prevents other crime Enables social cohesion and adaption can happen
      • Cloward and Ohlin - warning sign - when there is some crime it shows that there is something wrong
      • Davie and Polsky - having some small crime prevents larger crime eg **** v sexual crimes
      • Merton - strain theory - some people face strain where they cannot achieve the goals through the designated means. Conformists, innovators, ritualists, retreatists and rebels
      • Hirschi - Bond theory. The amount of attachment that someone has in the community massively impacts the chances of them committing crime eg family
      • Matza - Subbtarean Drift Values - people drift in and out of delinquency over time .Denial of responsibility, injury, victim , condemnation and appealing to others.
    • Marxism
      • Chambliss - Selective law enforcement and law making - the bourgeoisie can make the laws to suit them and enforce the laws on the proletariats
      • Althusser - The criminal Justice system is part of the RSA which makes the proletariat conform
      • NEO - MARXISM
        • Taylor, walton and Young - fully social theory. Combines Interpretivist methods with marxism. Wider origins of the act and responses
          • Hall applies this to the example of Muggins where BAME communities were scapegoated
    • Surveillance
      • Foucault - Panopticon - If there is surveillance all round and people don't know when they are being watched then self- surveillance will occur
      • Bauman- In a post- modern age we are under constant surveillance by the media
    • Gender and crime
      • Carlen - women face a class gender deal. Whereby they are punished for being either at home or a woman in work
      • Heidensohn- spheres - there are particular spheres that deny women the opportunity to commit crime. eg Public sphere os shame culture
      • Lombroso- women are biologically different so don't commit crime.
      • Parsons - Sex role theory - women are made to be maternal whereas men feel as if they must be instrumental
      • men are facing a crisis in masculinity which means that they naturally resort to crime
    • Ethnicity and crime
      • Hall - BAME communities are often used as a scapegoat for crime - een as the typical offender
      • Canteen culture - police forces come together to prosecute particular groups.
    • Media and crime
      • Hypodermic syringe model - people will just absorb the media and not worry about what it says eg imitation and excitement
      • Cohen - moral panics. The media sensationalise stories which causes them to be much more than what they are  eg mods and rockers
      • Postman - Infotainment. The media use information as entertainment to excite people and thus they have the thrill of crime
      • Mcrobbie and Thornton - Moral panics aren't as easy as there is more media and people understand the concept more
      • Cohen - fear of crime cycle - when crime increases then its in the media so people are scared - avoidance
      • The media is a unit of consumption. People see what they want in the media then act upon that through criminal actions
    • State crime
      • Green and ward - Street and state crime is the same - opportunity, motivation
      • Bauman - there are features of a modern society that enable state crime to take place eg increase in technology means that it can be understood better
      • Types of state crime International, social and cultural, domestic , security and police forces.
    • Globalisation of crime
      • Drugs trade - the international drugs trade is estimated to be around £3 trillion. Used to just be LEDC's
      • Trafficking - increase of women, children and organs trafficked for sex crimes and threats
      • Financial  crime - increase due to convenience of online banking such as money laundering
      • Technological crime - can be in different countries eg changing VPN
    • Subcultural theories
      • Cohen - status frustration. Often Working class boys cannot achieve through the required means
      • Cloward and Ohlin - illegitimate opportunity structures - it already happens in an area
      • Miller - focal concerns - WC lads have a culture eg toughness


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