Defining Knowledge

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  • Defining Knowledge
    • Tripartite definition
      • Three components
        • Justification
        • Truth
        • Belief
      • Issues
        • The conditions aren't sufficient
          • Gettier's counter examples
            • Smith & Jones
              • Smith has JTB but not knowledge
        • The conditions aren't individually necessary
      • Plato
        • Claims the conditions are necessary and sufficient
    • No false lemmas clause
      • Aims to strengthen the justification clause
        • Avoids the Gettier case
          • Smith's doesn't have knowledge
      • Four components
        • Justification
        • Truth
        • Belief
        • Not inferred from anything false
      • Issues
        • Fake Barn scenario
          • Henry has JTB+N but not knowledge
    • Reliabilism
      • Belief must be caused by a relible cognitive process
        • Avoids  the Gettier case
          • Doesn't avoid the Fake Barn scenario
            • Henry's belief was formed through his sight - which is a reliable cognitive process
      • Sensitivity clause
        • Nozick
        • S wouldn't believe P if P was false
          • Avoids the Fake Barn scenario
            • If it wasn't a real barn, Henry would still beleive it was
    • Infallibilism
      • Belief must be certain - cannot be false
        • Avoids both cases
          • Gettier case
            • Smith  may had misheard the boss, it could be a dream, etc
          • Fake Barn scenario
            • Henry may be a brain in a vat, he could be dreaming, etc
      • Issues
        • Too strict
          • Everything can be doubted
    • Virtue epistemology
      • Belief was formed through excersising intellectual virtues
        • e.g. good memory, rational thought, etc
        • Avoids the Fake Barn scenario
          • Henry required the virtue of identifying real barns which he didn't have


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