Demographic changes: ageing population

  • Created by: holly6901
  • Created on: 05-02-20 10:52
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  • Demographic changes: ageing population
    • The ageing population
      • Most Western societies have an ageing population where the average age of the population is increasing
      • From 1985 to 2010, the median age of the UK population increased from 35.4 years to 39.7 years and is predicted to reach 42.2 years by 2035
      • The best way to see the ageing population is through population pyramids
    • Causes of an ageing population
      • Lower birth rates: Fewer people are being born in the younger generations
      • increased life expectancy: As more people live into old age, the proportion of the population who is elderly is increasing
    • Problems of an ageing population
      • An increasing dependency ratio: The age dependency ratio is people under 15 or over 64: people 15-64
        • The proportion of dependants per 100 of the working population has increased from 51% to 54% between 1994 and 2013
      • Increased public spending: The very old are more likely to require health and social services than the working age population
        • Taxes also pay for a variety of financial benefits for the elderly such as state pensions
      • Loneliness and isolation for older people: It was proved loneliness can have long-term effects
        • Christina Victor (2003): only 7% of old people reported feeling lonely
      • Demands on family members: Older people who are cared for by family members may make considerable demands in terms of informal care
        • Grundy and Henrietta (2006): The emergence of a sandwich generation who are older middle-aged women who care for parents or parents in-law
        • Sarah Harper (2013): to some extent the problems of an ageing society are a myth. The pressures on the NHS are more to do with rising expectations. A high age dependency ratio is because we force people to retire early
    • Positives of an ageing population
      • Older workers: Increasingly people are working beyond retirement age
        • In 2010, over-65s made a contribution of £40 billion to the economy
      • The voluntary sector: Retired people have time to contribute to volunteering
        • Older people volunteer worth £10 billion to the economy
      • Older people as consumers: David Kingman (2012) found that in recent years, older peoples spending power has increased
        • Older people buy certain products and services, such as oversea travel and eating out and less on other things such as petrol
      • Grandparents: Grandparents now make a huge contribution to family life
        • Marsha Jones (2007): Grandparents are now part of an 'army of labour'
        • Grandparents also contribute financially through child trust funds and giving their assets on when they die


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