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  • Demography
    • Birth
      • Trend: Birth rate is falling
      • Reasons why
        • Changes in the position of women
          • Better education and employment
          • Access to contraceptionand abortion
        • Declining infant mortality rate
        • Rising cost of children
        • Fewer children being born due to child-centredness
    • Death
      • Trend: death rate is decreasing
      • Reasons why
        • Improved nutrition and diet
        • Better healthcare and understanding of disease
        • Decline in dangerous/ manual work
        • Public health measures introduced
    • Migration
      • Trend: Migration (both immigration and emigration) are increasing
      • Reasons why
        • Pull factors
          • Better living standards or wages
        • Push factors
          • High unemployment, war or poor living standards
        • Globalisation
          • Ease of access to other countries
      • Effects of migration
        • Increased population
        • Age structure
    • Ageing population
      • Trend: population is ageing
      • Reasons why
        • Lower infant mortality rate
        • Declining fertility rates
        • Increasing life expectancy
      • Effects of an ageing population
        • More lone person households and extended families
        • Higher consumption of public services
        • Increasing dependency ratio
        • More ageism / age related discrimination


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