Developments between the revolutions

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  • Created on: 25-04-22 20:59
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  • Developments between the revolutions
    • The return of Lenin
      • After Feb 1917- the Bolsheviks only had 23,000 members
        • Call to oppose the PG was seen as unrealistic as the B's were a minority
      • When Lenin arrived on 3 April 1917, from Switzerland, the Bolsheviks formed their own ideology
        • This had previously aligned with policy adopted by other left-wing parties
      • Lenin enlisted help from the Germans to return, he was sent to stir up trouble
      • Exiled for 17 years but greeted with cheering crowds at the Finland station in Petrograd
      • Lenin was percieved as 'out of touch' by some bolsheviks and his radical proposals would cause harm
    • Lenin's ideology and the April thesis
      • Lenin did not believe in the need of a 'bourgeois stage' of revolution as the middle class was too weak
        • Lenin believed Europe was on the brink of revolution - 'Permanent revolution theory'
      • April theses: the war should end ASAP, power to the Soviets, land to the peasants
        • 'Peace, bread and land' and 'All power to the soviets!'
          • 'Utter falsity of the Provisional governement'
      • Lenin got his way by tactful retreat, threats of resignation, compromise and appeals to rank and file
        • Lenin claimed credit for peasant seizure of land in the countryside
          • Also took credit for anti-war demonstration in Petrograd that caused resignation of Milyukov and Guchkov in the PG
    • The July Days
      • 3-5 July at the Kronstradt Naval base
        • Armed demonstration using B- slogans
          • Lenin felt revolution was premature but he could neither support or condemn revolution
            • Tried to keep the protest peaceful but turned violent
              • Violence towards protestors resulted in riots that undermined Lenin's authority
      • The offices of the 'Pravda' newspaper were closed and warrants were sent for the arrest of leaders
        • Lenin and Stalin fled
        • Trotsky and Kamenev arrested
          • Whilst in prison, Trotsky became a committed Bolshevik
      • The Bolshevik 'Izvestia' newspaper denounced the role of their leaders
        • Suggested that Lenin was working with the Germans against Russia
      • B propaganda burned and Lenin's reputation fell for fleeing
      • Kerensky replaced Prince Lvov after the July Days
    • The Kornilov coup
      • June offensive by Brusilov in Galicia
        • Military was influenced by anti-war sentiment, led to desertions so the Russian advance was pushed back
        • Kornilov was appointed to restore discipline
          • Reintroduced death penalty
          • Bolsheviks boycotted Kerensky's Moscow State conference that was intended to show political unity
          • Kornilov was liked by those on the right and Milyukov's kadets
      • In August, Kornilov ordered 6 regiments of troops to Petrograd, presumable to stage a military takeover
        • Kerensky panicked and released B's from prison and provided them and workers weapons from gov. armouries
          • B's organised the Petrograd 'Red guards', a more efficient paramilitary unit
          • B membership increased from 23,000 in February to 200,000 by October
            • Producing 41 newspapers and commanded 10,000 red guards
            • Won a majority vote in the Pertrograd and Moscow soviets
            • Trotsky = chairman of the executive committee of the Petrograd soviet
        • Kornilov's supply lines were cut and coup leaders arrested
    • Lenin and the  Central committee of the Bolshevik party
      • 'History will not forgive us if we do not assume power now'
        • Zinoviev and Kamenev urged restraint form revolution as Russia was not economically ready
        • Trotsky wanted to work through the Petrograd soviet on 26 October
      • Lenin was still hiding in Finland but bothered the 12-man committee
        • Came back on 10 October - managed a 10-2 vote in favour of an armed rising
          • Kamenev and Zinoviev said no
  • B's benefitted from widespread dissilllusionment
    • Prices rose by c755% above pre-war levels
    • In August, managers had the right to dismiss workers who went on strike
    • Continuation of war and failure to distribute land
    • Failure to hold constituent assemble led to suspicion that the governement delayed democracy to maintain their own power


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