Direct effect

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  • Direct Effect
    • Media effects are seen as significant in regard to areas of social life and culture
      • Violence
      • Politics
      • Health and well Being
      • Body image
    • Theories
      • Vance Dackard
        • Magic Bullet theory- Media is like a syringe that injects messages into the audience penetrating their brains like a bullet.
      • Elizabeth Newson
        • James Bulger case- The murder of a  boy by two ten year olds
      • Bandura
        • Children would imitate violence shown on TV
          • Boho doll experiment- Children shown a film clip of an adult punching a bobo doll. The kids were left alone in a classroom designed for this experiment and they would copy the adult and start being aggressive towards toys.
        • Effects of media are direct and immediate- could argue that the kids weren't violent the real world
    • Examples- News papers and advertisement
    • Music direct effects
      • Anderson et al-conducted research into direct effect of music on an audience
        • Violent song lyrics- 500 college students- got them to listen to violent and non violent music- clear patters of aggressive thoughts and feelings of hostility from violent lyrics
      • Hall et al (20011)- research into direct effect of sexualising song lyrics on young audience.- studied from the years 1959-2009- the lyrics teach young men to be sexually aggressive towards women and their value to society is to pleasure men
      • Hardcastle et al- lyrics have positive references to alcohol and the use of it. But it contrasts to public health messages about the dangers of excessive alcohol use
      • Feshbach and singer- Two groups one was exposed yo non violent images while the other was shown violent- they found that those with the non violent images were more aggressive after wards in comparison to the others who had lost that built up anger- catharsis
      • Field experiment- use real-life situations
      • Desensitisation- happens over time becoming more tolerant
      • Seeing and hearing violence can make someone deterrent because they are aware of the real result
    • Indirect effect
      • The Two-step flow model- Someone in power taking information from the media and informing others
      • Katz and Lazarsfeld- opinion leaders in influencing the views of others. They have more exposure to media views makking them some what of an expert on the topic.
      • Influence on media reaches the audience through the two steps- the opinion leader takes in the media messages- the opinion leader transmits these on within context of social relationships.
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