Disease Dilemmas 1. What are the global patterns of disease and can factors be identified that determine these?

  • Created by: DanBish
  • Created on: 07-05-22 12:56
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  • What are the global patterns of disease and can factors be identified that determine these?
    • Diseases can be classified and their patterns mapped. The spread of diseases is complex and influenced by a number of factors
      • Patterns of diseases
        • Malaria - Nearly half the world lives in areas at risk - 87 countries and territories
        • 37.9 million people worldwide living with HIV or AIDS
        • The largest number or new TB cases occurred in the WHO South-East Asian Region
        • 415 million people world wide, with 1 in 11 of the worlds adult population
        • Cardio-vascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of global death - 32% of all deaths in 2019. Over 3/4 CVD deaths take place in low/middle income countries
      • Disease diffusion and spread to new areas
        • Diffuse is defined as ‘to disperse or be dispersed from a centre; to spread widely, disseminate’
        • Barriers
          • Physical barriers
            • Mountains
            • Desert
            • Bodies of water - Lake, Sea, Ocean
            • Rural periphery
            • Remoteness
          • Extreme climate
          • Political, social + socio-economic boundaries
          • Human barriers - travel restrictions, migration control
    • There is a relationship between physical factors and the prevalence of disease which can change over time
      • Global patterns of temperature, precipitation, relief and water sources and how they affect patterns of disease
        • Precipitation leads to stagnant water, so disease vectors thrive
        • Many diseases are water borne
        • Relief affects global patterns as altitude causes abrupt changes in climate and disease habitat
      • Physical factors can influence vectors of disease such as the prevalence of mosquitoes in warm, humid areas close to water sources.
        • Mosquitoes thrive in warm, humid conditions, which in turn favours the outbreak of dengue
      • How seasonal variations influence disease outbreaks such as periods of drought or monsoon rains.
        • Many of the vector-borne diseases occur in the tropics and can be seasonal in terms of when the rainy seasons occurs. 
        • In the tropics and sub-tropics, vector-borne diseases, transmitted by mosquitoes, flies, ticks, fleas and wormers, often reach a peak during the rainy season
      • Climate change provides the conditions for emerging infectious diseases to spread to new places and new hosts such as West Nile virus, tsetse fly and tick seasons
        • Climate change increases the risk of human exposure to West Nile Virus
        • Increase in temperature has been shown to kill more than 50% of tsetse pupae
      • The conditions for zoonotic infectious diseases such as bird flu or rabies to establish and spread from animals to humans.
        • Zoonotic diseases, spread from animals to humans by viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi, are very common
        • Dogs, bats, foxes, raccoons and other mammals transmit rabies
        • Urbanisation creates suitable habitats for animals such as foxes, raccoons and skunks
        • If hygiene & sanitation are poor; drinking water is contaminated by animal faeces, blood and saliva; man-made habitats (ponds) encourage insect vectors to breed


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