Early Elizabethan England 1558-1588

  • Created by: Duck
  • Created on: 06-06-18 15:13
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  • Early Elizabethan England ~ 1558-1588
    • The Religious Settlement
      • Why was the Church so important?
        • Informed people what their letters meant
        • Wrote letters for people
        • Care for, and heal, the sick
        • Collected taxes for the monarch
        • Performed weddings, baptisms, and buried the dead
      • The Act Of Supremacy: Made Elizabeth the supreme head of the Church Of England to stress Elizabeth's power. All clergy and royal officials had to swear an oath of allegiance to her as the head of the church.
      • The Act Of Uniformity: The appearance of all churches were the same and so were all the church services.
        • Every church had to have one copy of the Bible in English. Translation was vague so that both Protestants and Catholics could interpret it the way they wanted.
        • No one was allowed to preach unless they had a license from the government.
        • Priests wore special clothing.
        • Fines for those who didn't attend church on Sunday
      • Royal Injunctions: Instructions issued by Sir William Cecil on behalf of the queen and the clergy. Gave more detail on how people should worship God and the structure of services.
      • Why were there problems with religion once Elizabeth became the queen?
        • King Henry VIII broke away from the Catholic church to be able to divorce his wife (Catherine of Aragon). He became the head of the new Church Of England.
        • Edward VI was brought up Protestant and churches were made more Protestant than they were before.
        • Mary Tudor was a strict Catholic and turned England back to Catholicism. Violently persecuted those who didn't convert by burning them at the stake (Turn or Burn)
    • The Spanish Armada
      • Why did Phillip II launch the Spanish Armada?
        • Religion: Phillip wanted to get rid of Protestantism in Europe and the pope promised to forgive the sins of those who took part in the Armada.
        • Politics: Treaty of Joinville (1584), Treaty of Nonsuch (1885)
        • Provocation: Drake stealing from the Spanish ships in the New World and Elizabeth's support for the Dutch rebels in the Netherlands.
      • Armada Strategy: 130 ships, 2431 guns, 30000 men.
        • Duke of Medina-Sidonia commanded to sail along the English Channel to the Netherlands where they would join up with the Duke of Parma. Together, they would march on London and depose of Elizabeth and impose a Catholic government in England.
      • How did England defeat the Spanish Armada?
        • Ship Design: Galleons built to make it faster and easier to move/turn. Could also fire more cannon balls than the Spanish. Only 24 made.
        • Spanish Supplies: Supplies were stored in poor quality wood so the food rotted quicker. Drake had destroyed the good quality barrels, as well as 30 ships, at the raid on Cadiz so new barrels had to be made quickly. Drake also delayed them immensely
        • Spanish Planning and Communication Issues: Lots of small ships had to be used because the Duke of Parma did not control any deep-sea ports (for large ships) in the Netherlands. This was due to Robert Dudley stopping them from capturing the port (even though the main plan failed).
        • English Tactics: Armada spotted on English Channel on the 29th July 1588. English opened fire on the 31st July. 2 ships were captured. Exchanges of cannon fire near the Isle of Wight on 3-4th August, which prevented the Spanish from capturing it and resting in time to meet with the Duke of Parma. English sent fireships to where the Spanish were resting, which cause panic (6th August).
      • Battle of Gravelines (8th August): Medina-Sidonia had to fight the English without Parma's ships, which were not ready. Armada tried to flee back to Spain by going past Scotland and Ireland but were destroyed by the storms and winds.
    • Education
      • Education was to prepare you for the life you were meant to lead.
      • Only a small percentage of the population had an education, and most of them were boys (only some girls received formal education).
      • New Influences on Education
        • Humanists: Believed learning was important in its own right. They also studied the work of ancient philosophers and mathematicians to develop a better understanding of the world.
        • Protestants: Encouraged people to become literate so that they could read and understand the Bible themselves to develop their own relationship with God.
        • Business and Trade: Basic education became more important so that businesses could become better and the economy could improve.
      • Education in the Home
        • The Nobility: Latin, Greek, History, Philosophy, Government, Theology
          • Boys: Fencing, Swimming, Wrestling.
          • Girls: Music, Dancing, Needlework, Horse Riding, Archery.
      • Grammar Schools: 42 founded in the 1560's and 30 more in the 1570's.
        • Private schools for boys who were considered bright and were sons of the gentry, professionals, wealthy business owners.
        • Girls could not attend. Educated at home by their mothers preparing them for married life and running a househod.
        • Fees were based on how much property you owned. Few lower class boys attended because of money left in their wills to provide education.
        • School lasted from 6am-7pm (10 hours) Monday-Saturday. Holidays at Christmas and Easter.
        • Curriculum focused on Latin, Greek, French. Studied philosophers such as Aristotle. Archery, Chess, Wrestling.
          • Great emphasis on memorizing text, especially the Bible, and texts emphasizing morals and manners. Public speaking was thought of as essential for a well-educated gentleman.
        • Different Types of Grammar Schools
          • Merchants And Craftsmen: For sons of merchants and craftsmen. Focused on English, writing, arithmetic, geography.
          • Skilled Craftsmen And Yeomen Farmers: Apprenticeships where they would learn the business of how to run a family business or farm.
        • Discipline and Punishments:
          • Being kept in at break time
          • Exclusion
          • Being on report (teacher monitored behavior and reported back to parents.
          • Corporal punishments such as caning
          • Expelled




good info just a bit hard to read (too messy).

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