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  • Decomposition
    • Ecology
      • mineral uptake
        • must have a high supply of oxygen for the energy needed.
        • For nitrate ions into the cell they must travel against the concentration gradient from low to high.
        • Root hair cells adapt to have a large surface area via finger-like extension.
        • Green plants produce amino acids which are converted into protein.
      • Nitrgoen cycle
        • in the soil, nitrogen changes into nitrate.
        • Plants take up nitrate via their roots by active uptake to make amino acids.
          • Animals cannot do this and must eat plants to get protein.
        • Decomposing bacteria feeds on the protein of dead animals and urine.
        • This decay produces ammonia and nitrifying bactera in the soil converts the ammonia into nitrates.
        • This is taken up by the plant roots which converts back into nitrogen gas.
      • Energy transfer
        • 2) energy in plants eaten by animals.
        • 3) energy lost through excretion, egestion, death and decomposition
        • energy lost as heat from respiration
        • 1) suns energy is trapped in plants
          • energy lost as heat from respiration
    • Bacteria and fungi are decomposers
    • Smaller nutrients can be asborbed into fungal cells
    • Dead material broken down by detritivores e.g worms.
    • This is called extra celleur digestion
    • Enzymes into the material to start digestion of larger molecules.
    • Increased surface area for bacteria to work,


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