Theories of Education

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  • Theories of Education
    • Functionalism
      • Believe that society is held together by seven components: Education, Legal System, Political system, Economy, Media, Health and Family
      • Durkheim - Pass on societies culture and build social solidarity
        • Education recognizes functional prerequisite by passing on the core values of society.
        • This is achieved through the hidden curriculum
          • Education recognizes functional prerequisite by passing on the core values of society.
      • Shlutz -  Human Capital
        • Education prepares you for the labour force - making sure the best and most qualified people end up in better jobs
      • Davis and Moore - Select and allocate people for roles in a meritocratic society and legitimizing social inequality
        • In a meritocratic society, jobs are gained through hard work and skills and if you fail you only have yourself to blame because there is an equality of educational opportunity
      • Parsons - Providing a bridge between particularistic values and ascribed status of the family and the universalistic values and achieved status of a contemporary advanced society
        • Education is an important place for secondary socialization
    • Marxism
      • Bourdieu
        • Key role within education is to legitimse the class inequalities and reproduce a class structure
      • Althusser
        • Divides the state into two 'apparatuses'
          • The Repressive State Apparatus (RSA) - maintaining the ruling class through force or threat of it
          • The Ideological State Apparatus - to prevent the working class rebelling against the exploitation they must try and persuade them into their beliefs
      • Wills
        • Research into fifteen lads in a low class school about their attitude to education
      • Bowles and Gintis
        • The Correspondence Principle - norms and values that children are taught make them easier to exploit at work
        • 1. Helps to produce a subservient workforce of uncritical, passive and submissive workers
        • 2. Encouraging acceptance of hierarchy and authority
        • 3. Motivation by external rewards
        • 4. The fragment of subjects at school
    • Vocationalist
      • Vocational  Education - They believe that having these courses has created a more skilled and flexible workforce
    • New Right
      • Disregarding Local Needs
        • State education is unresponsive and inefficient due to the one size fits all approach that preacher uniformity and disregards local needs
      • Marketisation
        • Competitions in schools with empower consumers and bring greater diversity, choices and efficency
      • Chubb and Moe - Education is the USA failed because they didn't create equal opportunity to those disadvantaged, failed to produce students with skills and private schools deliver better education


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