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  • becker
    • pupils are constantly being assessed and, consequently, they are labelled and placed in particular classes based on the label they been given
    • labelling
      • Hargreaves, hestor and Mellor (1975)
        • overt participant observations (3 steps)
          • 1.speculation: the teacher makes an assumption (they label you as being naughty)
            • 2. elaboration: teacher tests out their assumption (they might give a black student a certain task to do and see if they properly)
              • 3. stabilisation: the results from the test becomes solidified and now the label will be attached to the student. the teacher now feels as if they know who the student is and what makes them misbehave but this more based on stereotypes than evidence)
      • Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968)
        • tested elementary school children with an iq test and gave the teachers false test score (randomly gave students high/ low scores)
          • finding: they were tested again a year later and they found that the "special" students had an icrease in iq. they believed that this led to the halo effect and the self-fulfilling prophecy.
            • analysis: applicable to primary school children because they are less likely to reject the labels. other factors that influence is : social/ friendship groups, maturity and family/home life.


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