english grammar

View mindmap
    • sentences
      • complex: a main and a subordinate clause linked by a subordinator e.g after, if, so, like, whereas
      • compound: 2 or more main clauses linked by a coordinating conjunction
      • simple: only has one finite verb so is a main clause
      • minor:don't have both a subject and a finite verb e.g 'hello' 'wish you were here' 'all aboard'
      • functions: declarative 'this is mine' imperative 'leave now' interrogative 'who are you' exclamation 'i am so happy'
    • clauses
      • adverbial: answers when, why and what for? marked by 'if' 'because' 'unless'
      • relative: adds extra info about the noun. marked by relative pronouns 'who' 'which' 'that'
      • comparative: equal or unequal e.g 'as' or 'than'
      • clause elements: subject (noun, noun phrase, sub clause) + object + verb + complement (adds meaning to subj or obj) + adverbial (noun, phrase, sub clause) + vocative (addresse)
      • main/ coordinating: contain a subject and a finite verb
    • adjectives
      • descriptive: add extra info about physical qualities and psychological qualities like emotions.
      • evaluative: convey judgements and subjectivity
      • premodifiers occur before the noun and postmodifiers after the noun
      • comparatives: longer, happier superlatives: longest, happiest
      • compound: heart-felt, over-paid
    • nouns
      • common nouns
        • count nouns: occur with a/an and can have an 's' to mark plurality
      • proper nouns: have capital letters
      • abstract nouns: conceptual ideas, attitudes and feelings e.g mystery, happiness, thought, luck
      • concrete nouns: tangible and have physical attributes e.g box, tree, apple, letter
      • pronouns
        • subject pronouns: I, you, he/she/it, we, you, they
        • object pronouns: me. you. him/her/it. us, you, them
        • possessive pronouns: mine, yours, his/hers, ours, yours, theirs
        • reflexive: myself, yourself, himself/herself/itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves
    • verbs
      • stative verbs: state of being or a process. e.g 'was' 'have' dynamic: physical actions e.g 'to buy' 'to throw'
      • modal: attitudes about the likelihood of an event e.g ought, might, could
      • lexical: holds meaning in a phrase 'ran' 'stroked'. auxillary: create tense, questions or negatives 'i am going' 'he didn't watch'
      • transitive: followed by an object e.g carry, find, like intransitive: no object e.g fall, go, appear
      • finite: mark for tense and person e.g 'he plays' 'i was' non-finite: infinitive or aux e.g 'to live' 'i am eating'
      • copular: link the subject to the complement e.g 'i am clever' 'she is tired'
    • conjunctions
      • coordinating: connect 2 main clauses of equal value e.g 'and' 'but' 'or'
      • subordinating: connect a main and a subordinate clause e.g since, until, where, however, in order to
    • phrases
      • prepositional: act as an adverb or adjective. Consist of a determiner, adjective, pronoun/noun
      • verb: no subject. Consists of auxillary, lexical and adverb
      • noun: consists of determiner, noun and modifiers.
      • adjective: usually formed from an intensifier 'very happy' 'cold enough'
      • adverb: time 'tomorrow morning' manner 'in a rage' place 'under the chair' frequency 'every so often' disjuncts 'surprisingly' interrogation 'why' 'which'
      • pronoun: formed from a pronoun and a modifier e.g 'silly me' 'she herself'
    • determiners
      • articles: 'the' is a definite article whereas 'a' or 'an' are indefinite
      • demonstratives: this, that, these, those
      • quantifiers: all, few, many
      • possessives: my, your, their, its
    • listing
      • asyndetic: without 'and' conjunction
      • syndetic: using 'and' conjunction
      • triadic: three consecutive word classes


No comments have yet been made

Similar English Language resources:

See all English Language resources »See all Investigating language resources »