Enlightenment Medicine - Part 2:

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  • Medicine In Enlightenment England:
    • Context:
      • New understandings of the human body and Galen's works were sometimes incomplete.
        • Four humour theory no longer accepted.
          • People though that miasma caused disease.
        • Doctors carried out dissections and used microscopes.
    • The Cause of Disease:
      • Louis Pasteur's Germ Theory - 1857:
        • People believed in spontaneous generation - that microbes appear because of disease.
          • Still believed in miasma.
        • He proved there were germs in the air by sterilising water and placing it in a vacuumed space and it stayed sterile.
      • Robert Koch:
        • Began linking disease to the microbe that caused the disease.
        • Developed a solid medium to grow cultures and dyeing techniques to colour microbes.
          • He identified anthrax spores and the bacteria that caused septicaemia, tuberculosis and cholera.
      • Louis Pasteur Cholera Vaccine and Anthrax vaccine:
        • Chamberland left the cholera germs on his table and injected the chickens after his holiday.
          • The chickens survived and after giving them cholera again they survived.
        • Pasteur's team made a weakened form of the anthrax spores and that made sheep immune to the disease.
          • They demonstrated in public.
    • Smallpox and Edward Jenner:
      • Inoculation:
        • Lady Montagu brought inoculation to England because smallpox was killing a lot.
          • She found that a healthy person could be immunised using pus from smallpox sores.
        • Inoculation sometimes led to smallpox and then death.
      • Edward Jenner:
        • He found that milk maids would not get smallpox but instead a milder cowpox.
          • He found that people with cowpox did not get smallpox.
        • In 1976, he injected a small boy with pus from a milkmaids sores and then injected him with smallpox and he didn't get smallpox.
      • Opposition:
        • Jenner could not explain how it worked scientifically.
        • Inoculators were afraid of losing money.
        • Many were worried of the side effects.
        • The Church felt that it was no natural.
    • Developments In Nursing:
      • Florence Nightingale:
        • Brought discipline and professionalism to nursing.
          • Improved hygiene so it resulted in less deaths.
        • She came from a wealthy background.
        • Went to the Crimean War to sort out nursing care in the English Camp.
        • Wrote 'Notes on Nursing' and set up a hospital in London.
      • Mary Seacole:
        • Came from Jamaica and volunteered in the Crimean War.
        • She nurtured soldiers and built the 'British Hotel'.


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